Radiation protection of patients: Patients are exposed to ionizing radiations when they undergo diagnostic examinations using x-rays or radiopharmaceuticals, therapy of cancer or benign lesions using radiations emitted by radioisotopes or those by radiation generators; and in interventional procedures using fluoroscopy. There has been a tremendous increase in the use of ionizing radiation in medicine during recent decades.Automatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Image-guided surgery: Today, doctors are using computerized technologies that are familiar to people in the consumer world to help fight cancer in the operating room. An important example of that application is image guided surgery (IGS) and it helps surgeons perform safer and less invasive procedures and remove brain tumors that were once considered inoperable due to their size and/or location.Collins H. JohnstonPercutaneous: In surgery, percutaneous pertains to any medical procedure where access to inner organs or other tissue is done via needle-puncture of the skin, rather than by using an "open" approach where inner organs or tissue are exposed (typically with the use of a scalpel).Herbert screw: The Herbert screw (invented by Timothy Herbert) is a variable pitch cannulated screw typically made from titanium for its stainless properties as the screw is normally intended to remain in the patient indefinitely. It became generally available in 1978.Society of Interventional Radiology: The Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) is an American national organization of physicians, scientists and allied health professionals dedicated to improving public health through the use of minimally invasive, image-guided therapeutic interventions for disease management.http://www.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Clickfine pen needlesBalloon catheter: A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body. The deflated balloon catheter is positioned, then inflated to perform the necessary procedure, and deflated again in order to be removed.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]Neuronavigation: Neuronavigation is the set of computer-assisted technologies used by neurosurgeons to guide or "navigate” within the confines of the skull or vertebral column during surgery, and used by psychiatrists to accurately target rTMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation). The set of hardware for these purposes is referred to as a neuronavigator.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Imaging phantom: Phantom}}Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Currarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Cardiovascular technologistCardiac imagingIrradiance: In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre (), while that of spectral irradiance is the watt per square metre per hertz (W·m−2·Hz−1) or the watt per square metre per metre (W·m−3)—commonly the watt per square metre per nanometre ().Cryosurgery: Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the use of extreme cold in surgery to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue.DermNet NZ – Cryotherapy The term comes from the Greek words cryo (κρύο) ("icy cold") and surgery (cheirourgiki – χειρουργική) meaning "hand work" or "handiwork".Percutaneous nephrostomyJournal of Minimal Access Surgery: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery (ISSN: Print - 0972-9941, Online - 1998-3921) is peer-reviewed open access journal published on behalf of the Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons. The journal publishes articles on the subject of Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopic urology and gastrointestinal endoscopy.Hapalonychia: Hapalonychia, also known as egg-shell nail, is a condition in which the top of a toe or finger nail becomes soft and thin, causing it to bend or break. This condition can manifest as a result of genetic discrepancy James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Familial atrial fibrillation: Familial atrial fibrillation is an autosomal dominant heart condition that causes disruptions in the heart's normal rhythm. This condition is characterized by uncoordinated electrical activity in the heart's upper chambers (the atria), which causes the heartbeat to become fast and irregular.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCervical fractureAtrial septal defectIntramedullary rodShigeto Ikeda: was a Japanese physician, regarded as the "father" of fiberoptic bronchoscopy.Schering AGSpinal fractureChyle: Chyle (; from the Greek word χυλός chylos, "juice"Mosby’s Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, Fourth Edition, Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1994, p.Transesophageal echocardiogramIntraoperative radiation therapyLeft atrial enlargement: Left atrial enlargement (LAE) or left atrial dilation refers to enlargement of the left atrium (LA) of the heart, and is a form of cardiomegaly.UnsharpnessPercutaneous vertebroplastyInterbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Neutron magnetic moment: The neutron magnetic moment is the intrinsic magnetic dipole moment of the neutron, symbol μn. Protons and neutrons, both nucleons, comprise the nucleus of atoms, and both nucleons behave as small magnets whose strengths are measured by their magnetic moments.