AutofluorescenceSpectrofluorometer: A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample. A certain excitation wavelength is selected, and the emission is observed either at a single wavelength, or a scan is performed to record the intensity versus wavelength, also called an emission spectra.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Fluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.Single-molecule FRET: Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (or smFRET) is a biophysical technique used to measure distances at the 1-10 nanometer scale in single molecules, typically biomolecules. It is an application of FRET wherein a single donor and acceptor FRET pairs are excited and detected.Fluorescence recovery after photobleachingMultiphoton fluorescence microscope: A multiphoton fluorescence microscope (MFM) is a specialized optical microscope.Tryptophan operon leaderSynapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".RhodamineCitrine (colour): Citrine is a colour], the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of [[quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis: Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis assays can be used to measure enzyme activity produced by microbes in a sample. A bright yellow glow is produced and is strongest when enzymatic activity is greatest.Heptamethine dyesMauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Filter fluorometer: A filter fluorometer is a type of fluorometer that may be employed in fluorescence spectroscopy.Fluorescence loss in photobleaching: Fluorescence Loss in Photobleaching (FLIP) is a fluorescence microscopy technique used to examine movement of molecules inside cells and membranes. A cell membrane is typically labeled with a fluorescent dye to allow for observation.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismFluoresceinRed chlorophyll catabolite reductase: In molecular biology, the red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) family of proteins consists of several red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) proteins. Red chlorophyll catabolite (RCC) reductase (RCCR) and pheophorbide (Pheide) a oxygenase (PaO) catalyse the key reaction of chlorophyll catabolism, porphyrin macrocycle cleavage of Pheide a to a primary fluorescent catabolite (pFCC).Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Mass diffusivity: Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion). Diffusivity is encountered in Fick's law and numerous other equations of physical chemistry.Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.AcrylamideDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.SulfonylTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Coles PhillipsGrow lightIAEDANSCell membraneEnergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:MICAD: == Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database ==Vital stain: A vital stain in a casual usage may mean a stain that can be applied on living cells without killing them. Vital stains have been useful for diagnostic and surgical techniques in a variety of medical specialties.LiposomeWetting layer: In experimental physics, a wetting layer is an initial layer of atoms that is epitaxially grown on a surface upon which self-assembled quantum dots or thin films are created. The atoms composing a wetting layer can be semimetallic elements/compounds (usually InAs in the case of self-assembled quantum dots) or metallic alloys (for thin films).Reaction coordinateFlow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Denaturation midpoint: Assuming two-state protein folding, denaturation midpoint is defined as that temperature (Tm) or denaturant concentration (Cm) at which both the folded and unfolded states are equally populated at equilibrium. Tm is often determined using a thermal shift assay.Aminolevulinic acidStandard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Bill Parry (mathematician)Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Fluorescent glucose biosensor: Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market,No fluorescent biosensor has yet entered the medical market, however, in the market for research tools several fluorescent biosensors are present, such as a kit using [Vibrio fischeri] but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Model lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.Membrane fluidity: In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane. Lipid packing can influence the fluidity of the membrane.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Egg lecithinList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Diazole: Diazole refers to either one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C3H4N2, having a five-membered ring consisting of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms.Diazole, merriam-webster.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.New Zealand rabbitMagnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase: Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase (, Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase) is an enzyme with system name magnesium-protoporphyrin-IX 13-monomethyl ester,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating) . This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionKnotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.PyridiniumPheophorbidase: Pheophorbidase (, phedase, PPD) is an enzyme with system name pheophorbide-a hydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionNear-infrared spectroscopyBoron carbideMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Lower critical solution temperature: The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions. The word lower indicates that the LCST is a lower bound to a temperature interval of partial miscibility, or miscibility for certain compositions only.Ethidium homodimer assay: An ethidium homodimer assay can be used to detect dead or dying cells. Ethidium homodimer is a membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye which binds to DNA.List of infrared articles: This is a list of Infrared topics.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.