Neuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Guiding Eyes for the Blind: Yorktown Heights, New YorkAge-Related Eye Disease Study: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health in the United States.A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss.Infiltrative ophthalmopathy: Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is found in Graves disease and resembles exophthalmos, except that the blurry or double vision is acquired because of weakness in the ocular muscles of the eye. In addition, there is no known correlation with the patient's thyroid levels.BlepharitisCongenital cataractBlind People's Association: The Blind People’s Association (BPA) is an organisation in India which promotes comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with all categories of disabilities through education, training, employment, community based rehabilitation, integrated education, research, publications, human resource development and other innovative means.AlachrymaLogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Operation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Autorefractor: An autorefractor or automated refractor is a computer-controlled machine used during an eye examination to provide an objective measurement of a person's refractive error and prescription for glasses or contact lenses. This is achieved by measuring how light is changed as it enters a person's eye.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Pediatric ophthalmology: Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.Eye injuryDiabetic retinopathy: ( )Outline of photography: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography:Red reflex: The red reflex refers to the reddish-orange reflection of light from the eye's retina that is observed when using an ophthalmoscope or retinoscope from approximately 30 cm / 1 foot. This examination is usually performed in a dimly lit or dark room.Meibomian gland: The meibomian glands (or tarsal glands) are a special kind of sebaceous gland at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film. Meibum prevents tear spillage onto the cheek, trapping tears between the oiled edge and the eyeball, and makes the closed lids airtight.Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (white part of the eye). It is composed of non-keratinized, stratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells, and also stratified columnar epithelium.Low vision assessment: Low vision is both a subspeciality and a condition. Optometrists and Ophthalmologists after their training may undergo further training in Low vision assessment and management.Artificial tearsExophthalmosXerophthalmiaBlepharochalasisBullous keratopathyKeratoconjunctivitis siccaLandolt CKramers' opacity law: Kramers' opacity law describes the opacity of a medium in terms of the ambient density and temperature, assuming that the opacity is dominated by bound-free absorption (the absorption of light during ionization of a bound electron) or free-free absorption (the absorption of light when scattering a free ion, also called bremsstrahlung).Phillips (1999), p.Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Allergic conjunctivitisDiplopiaSuperior orbital fissure: The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.FluoresceinChemical eye injury: Chemical eye injury or chemical burns to the eye are due to either an acidic or alkali substance getting in the eye. Alkalis are typically worse than acidic burns.Sustainability marketing myopia: Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values. The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.Vitreous membrane: The vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) is a layer of collagen separating the vitreous humour from the rest of the eye. At least two parts have been identified anatomically.StrabismusList of optometry schools: The following list of optometry schools covers many countries, although the list is not exhaustive. Internationally, optometry as a profession includes different levels of education.Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.Enucleation (surgery): As a general surgical technique, enucleation refers to the surgical removal of a mass without cutting into or dissecting it.Iris dilator muscleOcular albinismDeaf white catKeratoconjunctivitisScanning laser ophthalmoscopyCataract surgeryMonocular estimate method: The monocular estimate method or monocular estimation method is a form of dynamic retinoscopy widely used to objectively measure accommodative response.Tassinari JT.French weapons in the American Civil War: French weapons in the American Civil War had a key role in the conflict and encompassed most of the sectors of weaponry of the American Civil War (1861–1865), from artillery to firearms, submarines and ironclad warships. The effect of French weapons was especially significant in field artillery and infantry.X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy: X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy (XECD) is a rare form of corneal dystrophy described first in 2006, based on a 4-generation family of 60 members with 9 affected males and 35 trait carriers, which led to mapping the XECD locus to Xq25. It manifests as severe corneal opacification or clouding, sometimes congenital, in the form of a ground glass, milky corneal tissue, and moon crater-like changes of corneal endothelium.Intraocular pressureLigneous conjunctivitis: Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic conjunctivitis characterized by recurrent, fibrin-rich pseudomembranous lesions of wood-like consistency that develop mainly on the underside of the eyelid (tarsal conjunctiva). It is generally a systemic disease which may involve the periodontal tissue, the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, middle ear, and female genitalia.Hay–Wells syndromeL. V. Prasad Eye InstituteInferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.ConjunctivitisTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityChorioretinitis: Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. It is a form of posterior uveitis.Meridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...RhytidectomyEyebrow: The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals. Their main function is hypothesized to prevent sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket, but they are also important to human communication and facial expression.XanthophyllChronic superficial keratitisScleritisIntraocular lymphoma: Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer. Intraocular lymphoma may affect the eye secondarily from a metastasis from a non-ocular tumor or may arise within the eye primarily (primary intraocular lymphoma, PIOL).Onchocerca tubingensis: Onchocerca tubingensis is the name of a nematode.The Free Dictionary It was 1974 discovered and published by O.Lens Controller: A Lens Controller is device that controls motorized photographic lens functions such as zoom, focus, and iris or aperture.Kruegle, Herman (2007).Red eye (medicine)Rimless eyeglasses: Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses.Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis: Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) is a chronic unilateral uveitis appearing with the triad of heterochromia, predisposition to cataract and glaucoma, and keratitic precipitates on the posterior corneal surface. Patients are often asymptomatic and the disease is often discovered through investigation of the cause of the heterochromia or cataract.William Donald SchaeferX-linked congenital stationary night blindness