Uniparental inheritance: Uniparental inheritance is a non-mendelian form of inheritance that consists of the transmission of genotypes from one parental type to all progeny. That is, all the genes in offspring will originate from only the mother or only the father.CccDNA: cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form that is ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Regenerative amplification: In laser science, regenerative amplification is a process used to generate short but strong pulses of laser light. It is based on a pulse trapped in a laser resonator, which stays in there until it extracts all of the energy stored in the amplification medium.Mollicutes: The Mollicutes are a class of bacteria"Mollicutes", from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 Oct.Coles PhillipsDNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.OpsismodysplasiaIridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type: Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type (type 1, IRID1) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Chromosome regionsVg1 ribozyme: The Vg1 ribozyme is a manganese dependent RNA enzyme or ribozyme which is the smallest ribozyme to be identified. It was identified in the 3' UTR of Xenopus Vg1 mRNA transcripts and mouse beta-actin mRNA.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Restriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Leishmania tropica: Leishmania tropica is a species of flagellate parasites that infects humans and hyraxes, and the cause of the disease Leishmaniasis Recidivans, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis. L.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Ethidium homodimer assay: An ethidium homodimer assay can be used to detect dead or dying cells. Ethidium homodimer is a membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye which binds to DNA.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Physarum aeneum: Physarum aeneum is a slime mould species from the order Physarida. It is one of a few slime moulds mainly common in the tropics and subtropics.Pyrethrin IIOrigin of replication: The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.Technical Glossary Edward K.MT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Spiroplasma: Spiroplasma is a genus of Mollicutes, a group of small bacteria without cell walls. Spiroplasma shares the simple metabolism, parasitic lifestyle, fried-egg colony morphology and small genome of other Mollicutes, but has a distinctive helical morphology, unlike Mycoplasma.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Homing endonuclease: The homing endonucleases are a collection of endonucleases encoded either as freestanding genes within introns, as fusions with host proteins, or as self-splicing inteins. They catalyze the hydrolysis of genomic DNA within the cells that synthesize them, but do so at very few, or even singular, locations.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Sodium bromideTelomere: A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Thermal cyclerSatellite DNA: Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres, and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin.Isocaudomer: Isocaudomers are pairs of restriction enzymes that have slightly different recognition sequences but upon cleavage generate identical termini. For example the enzymes Mbo I and BamH I are isocaudomers:Bergerac, Dordogne: Bergerac ( ; ) is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Dordogne department in southwestern France.DNA-binding proteinCousin couple: A cousin couple is a pair of cousins who are involved in a romantic or sexual relationship.Genetic variation: right|thumb