ExocytosisChromaffin cellSpecific granule: Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.SNARE (protein): SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) REceptor") are a large protein superfamily consisting of more than 60 members in yeast and mammalian cells.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Film capacitor: Film capacitors, plastic film capacitors, film dielectric capacitors, or polymer film capacitors, generically called “film caps” as well as power film capacitors, are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film as the dielectric, sometimes combined with paper as carrier of the electrodes. The dielectric films, depending on the desired dielectric strength, are drawn in a special process to an extremely thin thickness, and are then provided with electrodes.Synaptic vesicleVesicular transport protein: A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of specific molecules (transporter substrates) across a vesicular membrane. As a result, vesicular transporters govern the concentration of molecules within a vesicle.Interleukin 8: Interleukin 8 (IL-8) or CXCL8 is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Endothelial cells store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the Weibel-Palade bodies.Synaptobrevin: B:52-75 I:28-95 A:28-88Lipid bilayer fusion: In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure. If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers, an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix.SyntaxinPC12 cell line: PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells.Cell membraneMunc-18: Munc-18 (an acronym for mammalian uncoordinated-18) proteins are the mammalian homologue of unc-18 proteins (which can be found in organisms such as the C. elegans) and are a member of the Sec1/Munc18-like (SM) protein family.PyridiniumEndocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Rab (G-protein): The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins. Approximately 70 types of Rabs have now been identified in humans.Auguste-Charles Marie: Auguste-Charles Marie (26 July 1864 – 29 March 1935) was a French microbiologist born in Bayeux, department Calvados.Acrosome: The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus.Sympathoadrenal: The term sympathoadrenal means "involving the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system". It normally relates to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which acts on the adrenal medulla of the kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Phoneutria nigriventer toxin-3: Phoneutria nigriventer toxin-3 is more commonly referred to as PhTx3.Pine Islet LightN-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, also known as NSF or N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion proteins, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the NSF gene.Clostridium botulinum C3 toxinParamecium: Paramecium (, http://www.merriam-webster.Calcium encodingCatecholaminergic cell groups: Catecholaminergic cell groups refers to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain one of the neurotransmitters dopamine or norepinephrine. Thus, it represents the combination of dopaminergic cell groups and noradrenergic cell groups.Neurotransmitter: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as in a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.Tetramethylammonium chlorideEdna's Goldfish: Edna's Goldfish was an American ska punk band from Long Island, New York.Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Thiol-activated cytolysin: Cholesterol-binding cytolysin, previously incorrectly known as 'thiol-activated' cytolysins Bacterial Disease Mechanisms: Michael Wilson, Rod McNab, Brian Henderson (2002)" are toxins produced by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria and are characterised by their ability to lyse cholesterol-containing membranes, their reversible inactivation by oxidation and their capacity to bind to cholesterol.DegranulationGuanylate-binding protein: In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma (Interferon-inducible GTPase) are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens.Voltage-dependent calcium channel: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g.Mauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.Lysosome: A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). Structurally and chemically, they are spherical vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Fluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Neuroendocrine cell: Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood. In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration.Sea urchin injury: Sea urchin injuries are caused by contact with sea urchins, and are characterized by puncture wounds inflicted by the animal's brittle, fragile spines.Actin remodeling of neurons: Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Gastrocopta pellucida: Gastrocopta pellucida is a species of minute air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Vertiginidae, the vertigo snails.PHLPP: The PHLPP isoforms (PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases) are a pair of protein phosphatases, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, that are important regulators of Akt serine-threonine kinases (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) and conventional/novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PHLPP may act as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer due to its ability to block growth factor-induced signaling in cancer cells.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.
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