Acute esophageal necrosisNorman Barrett: Norman Rupert Barrett (1903–1979) was an Australian-born British thoracic surgeon who is primarily remembered for describing Barrett's oesophagus.Esophageal disease: Esophageal diseases can derive from congenital conditions, or they can be acquired later in life.Esophageal strictureEsophagectomyIntestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.Stretta procedure: Stretta is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A catheter is used to deliver radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter, muscle and gastric cardia.Angle of His: The angle of His is the acute angle created between the cardia at the entrance to the stomach, and the esophagus. It forms a valve, preventing reflux of duodenal bile, enzymes and stomach acid from entering the esophagus, where they can cause inflammation.Adenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.EsophagitisEpithelial dysplasia: Epithelial dysplasia, a term becoming increasingly referred to as intraepithelial neoplasia, is the sum of various disturbances of epithelial proliferation and differentiation as seen microscopically. Individual cellular features of dysplasia are called epithelial atypia.Boerhaave syndromePeristalsisAnorectal manometrySquamous-cell carcinomaPharynx: The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is an organ found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though the structure is not universally the same across the species. In humans the pharynx is part of the digestive system and also of the conducting zone of the respiratory system.Hiatus herniaAchalasiaSpent caustic: Spent caustic is a waste industrial caustic solution that has become exhausted and is no longer useful (or spent). Spent caustics are made of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, water, and contaminants.Stomach diseaseEndoscopy unit: An endoscopy unit refers to a dedicated area where medical procedures are performed with endoscopes, which are cameras used to visualize structures within the body, such as the digestive tract and genitourinary system. Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.Nissen fundoplicationHydrochloric acidEsophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis: Esophageal intramucosal pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition wherein the wall of the esophagus develops numerous small outpouchings (pseudodiverticulae). Individuals with the condition typically develop difficulty swallowing.Rectal foreign bodyCorrosive substanceBrain biopsyRødgrød: Rødgrød (Danish, ), rote Grütze (German), or Rode Grütt (Low German), meaning "red groats", is a sweet fruit dish from Denmark and Germany. The name of the dish in Danish features many of the elements that make Danish pronunciation difficult for non-native speakers, so 'rødgrød med fløde' (red groats with cream) is thus a commonly used shibboleth.Esophageal atresiaEsophageal motility disorder: An esophageal motility disorder is any medical disorder causing difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation of food and a spasm-type pain which can be brought on by an allergic reaction to certain foods. The most prominent one is dysphagia.Digestive system of gastropods: The digestive system of gastropods (slugs and snails of every kind) has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse indeed: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filter feeders, and even parasites.First Strike CoinsNitrosamine: Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, that is, a nitroso group bonded to an amine. Most nitrosamines are carcinogenic.Infraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer: A penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic lesion that ulcerates, leading to a hematoma forming within the walls of the aorta.GastrectomyBasaloid squamous cell lung carcinoma: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (Bas-SqCC) is an uncommon histological variant of lung cancer composed of cells exhibiting cytological and tissue architectural features of both squamous cell lung carcinoma and basaloid carcinoma.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Gastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.Diffuse esophageal spasmStratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.HeartburnTranspulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Goblet cell: A goblet cell is a glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cell whose function is to secrete gel-forming mucins, the major components of mucus. The goblet cells mainly use the merocrine method of secretion, secreting vesicles into a duct, but may use apocrine methods, budding off their secretions, when under stress.Photoimmunotherapy: Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new type of molecular targeted cancer therapy, which allows the selective destruction of cancer cells in mice without any damage to normal tissues. It is a light-based cancer therapy, which was developed by Professor Kobayashi and his colleagues at National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.
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