Enterococcus faecalis: Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E.Enterococcus avium: Enterococcus avium, a species of Enterococcus, is most commonly found in birds. Rarely, it is also a cause of infection in humans, and in such cases, may be vancomycin-reistant, and is referred to as VREA.Enterococcus faecium: Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. It can be commensal (innocuous, coexisting organism) in the human intestine, but it may also be pathogenic, causing diseases such as neonatal meningitis or endocarditis.Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus refers to strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin.BacitracinVancomycinFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).GentamicinBacteriocin: Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s). They are phenomenologically analogous to yeast and paramecium killing factors, and are structurally, functionally, and ecologically diverse.Trail pheromone: Trail pheromones are semiochemicals secreted from the body of an individual to impact the behavior of another individual receiving it. Trail pheromones often serve as a multi purpose chemical secretion in which, it leads members of its own species towards a food source, while representing a territorial mark in the form of an allomone to organisms outside of their species.Infective endocarditisTeicoplaninTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.LinezolidDimethylacetamideResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.BiofilmColes PhillipsStreptococcus dysgalactiae: Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a species of Streptococcus.PGLO: The pGLO plasmid is an engineered plasmid used in biotechnology as a vector for creating genetically modified organisms. The plasmid contains several reporter genes, most notably for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the ampicillin resistance gene.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.ATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Pulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Sodium hypochlorite: In dilution:DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).AmpicillinSaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.PBR322: pBR322 is a plasmid and was one of the first widely used E. coli cloning vectors.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.PulpitisVirulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.KasugamycinEyes (cheese): Eyes are the round holes that are a characteristic feature of Swiss-type cheeseP.L.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.Limewater: Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is sparsely soluble in water (1.ChlorhexidineEagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Phoenix abscess: A phoenix abscess is a dental abscess that can occur immediately following root canal treatment. Another cause is due to untreated necrotic pulp (chronic apical periodontitis).Peptidoglycan binding domainOperon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Thermal cyclerTCP (antiseptic)Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionAerococcus sanguinicola: Aerococcus sanguinicola is a member of the bacterial genus Aerococcus and is a gram-positive, catalase negative, coccus growing in clusters. This species was defined in 2001 and has since then been increasingly recognized as a pathogen causing urinary tract infections and also invasive infections including infective endocarditis.M17 agar: This bacterial growth medium was developed in 1971 for Lactococcus species isolated from milk products. It was originally called M16 medium,Lowrie, R.Bacteremia: (NOS) |ClinafloxacinSignature-tagged mutagenesis: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a genetic technique used to study gene function. Recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed us to catalogue a large variety of organisms' genomes, but the function of the genes they contain is still largely unknown.Diacetyl reductase ((S)-acetoin forming): Diacetyl reductase ((S)-acetoin forming) (, (S)-acetoin dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with system name (S)-acetoin:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionErythromycin 3''-O-methyltransferase: Erythromycin 3-O-methyltransferase (, EryG) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:erythromycin C 3-O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.StreptomycinCircular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Extended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis: Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly L. sanfrancisco) is a species of lactic acid bacteria that helps give sourdough bread its characteristic taste.Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Post and core: A post and core (colloquially known as a "post" or "dental post") is a type of dental restorationTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.MinocyclineSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Discovery and development of cephalosporins: Cephalosporins are a broad class of bactericidal antibiotics that include the β-lactam ring and share a structural similarity and mechanism of action with other β-lactam antibiotics (e.g.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.TosufloxacinActoBiotics: ActoBiotics (a registered trademark) consist of food-grade bacteria (Lactococcus lactis), genetically engineered to synthesize and secrete therapeutic proteins and peptides in situ. ActoBiotics are delivered to patients via oral administration instead of injection, and specifically target receptors and cells localized in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues.VanY protein domain: In molecular biology, VanY are protein domains found in enzymes named metallopeptidases. They are vital to bacterial cell wall synthesis and antibiotic resistance.