Endoscopy unit: An endoscopy unit refers to a dedicated area where medical procedures are performed with endoscopes, which are cameras used to visualize structures within the body, such as the digestive tract and genitourinary system. Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.Glasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.EndoscopyVirtual colonoscopy: Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen. The procedure is used to diagnose colon and bowel disease, including polyps, diverticulosis and cancer.IRGM: Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM), also known as interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1), is an enzyme that in humans is IRGM gene.Esophageal disease: Esophageal diseases can derive from congenital conditions, or they can be acquired later in life.Functional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery: The World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers four times a year in the field of Cardiovascular Disease. The journal's editor is Marshall Jacobs, MD (Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic).Nepean HospitalElpis Melena: Elpis Melena (1818–1899, born as Marie Espérance von Schwartz) was an Anglo-German writer who published under the name of Elpis Melena.Reactive gastropathy: In gastroenterology, reactive gastropathy, also chemical gastropathy, is an abnormality in the stomach caused by chemicals, e.g.Hydrogen darkening: Hydrogen darkening is a physical degradation of the optical properties of glass. Free hydrogen atoms are able to bind to the SiO2 silica glass compound forming hydroxyl (OH) - a chemical compound that interferes with the passage of light through the glass.CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.EsophagitisNorman Barrett: Norman Rupert Barrett (1903–1979) was an Australian-born British thoracic surgeon who is primarily remembered for describing Barrett's oesophagus.Narrow band imaging: Narrow band imaging refers to an imaging technique for endoscopic diagnostic medical tests, where light of specific blue and green wavelengths is used to enhance the detail of certain aspects of the surface of the mucosa. A special filter is electronically activated by a switch in the endoscope leading to the use of ambient light of wavelengths of 440 to 460 nm (blue) and 540 to 560 nm (green).Forrest classification: Forrest classification is a classification of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage used for purposes of comparison and in selecting patients for endoscopic treatment.http://books.Acute esophageal necrosisHematemesisJohn Lykoudis: John Lykoudis (1910 in Missolonghi – 1980) was a general practitioner in Greece who treated patients suffering from peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics long before it was commonly recognized that bacteria were a dominant cause for the disease.Stretta procedure: Stretta is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A catheter is used to deliver radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter, muscle and gastric cardia.Procedural sedation and analgesia: Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function."Gastric erosion: Gastric erosion occurs when the mucous membrane lining the stomach becomes inflamed. Some drugs, as tablets, can irritate this mucous membrane, especially drugs taken for arthritis and muscular disorders, steroids, and aspirin.Nagarjuna HospitalGastric varicesBrain biopsyGastritisSony camcorders: Sony produces professional and prosumer camcorders.Hiatus herniaGastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.OmeprazoleStomach diseaseSessile serrated adenoma: In gastroenterology, a sessile serrated adenoma (abbreviated SSA), also known as sessile serrated polyp (abbreviated SSP), is a premalignant flat (or sessile) lesion of the colon, predominantly seen in the cecum and ascending colon.CapsugelBarium sulfate suspension: Barium sulfate suspension is barium sulfate powder turned into a liquid form by suspending it in a quick-flowing drink to aid in CT scans of the gastrointestinal region.Angiodysplasia: In medicine (gastroenterology), angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut. It is a common cause of otherwise unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia.Gallbladder polyp: Gallbladder polyps are growths or lesions resembling growths (polypoid lesions) in the wall of the gallbladder. True polyps are abnormal accumulations of mucous membrane tissue that would normally be shed by the body.Intestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.Instruments used in gastroenterology: Instruments used specially in Gastroenterology are as follows:Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer: A penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic lesion that ulcerates, leading to a hematoma forming within the walls of the aorta.Duodenal cancerDuodenitisRectal foreign bodyProton-pump inhibitorSociety of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons: United StatesEsophageal strictureGastrin: Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Cathartic: In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation. This is in contrast to a laxative, which is a substance which eases defecation, usually by softening feces.Epithelial dysplasia: Epithelial dysplasia, a term becoming increasingly referred to as intraepithelial neoplasia, is the sum of various disturbances of epithelial proliferation and differentiation as seen microscopically. Individual cellular features of dysplasia are called epithelial atypia.AntacidBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.HeartburnAngle of His: The angle of His is the acute angle created between the cardia at the entrance to the stomach, and the esophagus. It forms a valve, preventing reflux of duodenal bile, enzymes and stomach acid from entering the esophagus, where they can cause inflammation.Inflammatory fibroid polyp: Inflammatory fibroid polyp, abbreviated IFP, is a benign abnormal growth of tissue projecting into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.Malone antegrade continence enema: right|300px|thumb|The [[vermiform appendix is typically used in the Malone antegrade continence enema.]]Spent caustic: Spent caustic is a waste industrial caustic solution that has become exhausted and is no longer useful (or spent). Spent caustics are made of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, water, and contaminants.Vector soliton: In physical optics or wave optics, a vector soliton is a solitary wave with multiple components coupled together that maintains its shape during propagation. Ordinary solitons maintain their shape but have effectively only one (scalar) polarization component, while vector solitons have two distinct polarization components.Fishing industry in Brunei: The fishing industry in Brunei is one of the largest contributors of the country’s revenue. Fishing is a major source of protein in the diets of the Brunei people.Fecal occult bloodMidazolamPortal hypertensionEsophagogastroduodenoscopy