Pulmonary interstitial emphysemaSubcutaneous emphysemaAlpha 1-antitrypsin deficiencyElastaseLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Lung cancer surgery: Lung cancer surgery describes the use of surgical operations in the treatment of lung cancer. It involves the surgical excision of cancer tissue from the lung.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Animals and tobacco smoke: Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place.Alveolar gas equation: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities. However it is not practical to take a sample of gas from the alveoli in order to directly measure the partial pressure of oxygen.Helium-3Spirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.Eosinophilic bronchitis: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a type of airway inflammation due to excessive mast cell recruitment and activation in the superficial airways as opposed to the smooth muscles of the airways as seen in asthma. It often results in a chronic cough.Elastin: Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched.Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema describes a medical syndrome involving both pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The combination is most commonly found in male smokers.BronchographyEndobronchial valve: An endobronchial valve is an implantable medical device—a small, one-way valve, which is implanted in an airway in the pulmonary system to treat one of several lung conditions. The one-way endobronchial valve is typically implanted such that when a patient exhales, air is able to flow through the valve and out of the lung compartment that is fed by that airway, but when the patient inhales, the valve closes and blocks air from entering that lung compartment.Yanzhou Coal Mining CompanyNeutrophil elastase: Neutrophil elastase (, leukocyte elastase, ELANE, ELA2, elastase 2, neutrophil, elaszym, serine elastase) is a serine proteinase in the same family as chymotrypsin and has broad substrate specificity. Secreted by neutrophils and macrophages during inflammation, it destroys bacteria and host tissue.EprozinolChronic lung diseaseCheyne–Stokes respirationDiaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.PneumoconiosisDesmosineHospital-acquired pneumonia: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Pulmonary surfactant protein D: In molecular biology, Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a protein domain predominantly found in lung surfactant. This protein plays a special role; its primary task is to act as a defence protein against any pathogens that may invade the lung.Spiritualism: Spiritualism is a belief that spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living. The afterlife, or "spirit world", is seen by spiritualists, not as a static place, but as one in which spirits continue to evolve.BronchioleAlveolar macrophagePhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Orbital apex syndrome: Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a collection of cranial nerve deficits associated with a mass lesion near the apex of the orbit of the eye. This syndrome is a separate entity from Rochon–Duvigneaud syndrome, which occurs due to a lesion immediately anterior to the orbital apex.Bronchus: A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. There is a right bronchus and a left bronchus and these bronchi branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi which branch into smaller tubes, known as bronchioles.