Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosaX-linked congenital stationary night blindnessScanning laser ophthalmoscopyLogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Gene therapy for color blindness: Gene therapy for color blindness is an experimental gene therapy aiming to convert congenitally colorblind individuals to trichromats by introducing a photopigment gene that they lack. Though partial color blindness is considered only a mild disability and is controversial whether it is even a disorder, it is a condition that affects many people, particularly males.ElectrooculographyVitreous membrane: The vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) is a layer of collagen separating the vitreous humour from the rest of the eye. At least two parts have been identified anatomically.Coherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.RetinoschisisFarnsworth Lantern Test: The Farnsworth Lantern Test, or FALANT, is a test of color vision originally developed specifically to screen sailors for shipboard tasks requiring color vision, such as identifying signal lights at night. It screens for red-green deficiencies, but not the much rarer blue color deficiency.OpsinMeridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...Rhodopsin: Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein. It is named after ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon) for “rose”, due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis) for “sight”.Plaque-forming unit: In virology, a plaque-forming unit (PFU) is a measure of the number of particles capable of forming plaques per unit volume, such as virus particles. It is a functional measurement rather than a measurement of the absolute quantity of particles: viral particles that are defective or which fail to infect their target cell will not produce a plaque and thus will not be counted.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary -, a part of The New York Times Company.Age-Related Eye Disease Study: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health in the United States.A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss.EndophthalmitisRetina bipolar cell: As a part of the retina, the bipolar cell exists between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. They act, directly or indirectly, to transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells.Reference electrode: A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential. The high stability of the electrode potential is usually reached by employing a redox system with constant (buffered or saturated) concentrations of each participants of the redox reaction.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Indian trademark law: Indian trademark law statutorily protects trademarks as per the Trademark Act, 1999 and also under the common law remedy of passing off. Statutory protection of trademark is administered by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, a government agency which reports to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act: The Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act (, 117 Stat. 2025, 2026, 2027, 2028 and 2029, codified at et seq.LipofuscinOpsismodysplasiaOperation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Central retinal vein occlusionRon Gallemore: Ron P. Gallemore is a registered ophthalmologist with the American Academy of OphthalmologyThe American Academy of Ophthalmology Dr Ron Gallemore certification involved in research and treatment of diseases of the macula and retina.Rod cellGrow lightPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Melanopsin: Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4. Two other opsins in the mammalian retina are both involved in the formation of visual images: rhodopsin and photopsin in the rod and cone photoreceptor cells, respectively.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Optic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.Cousin couple: A cousin couple is a pair of cousins who are involved in a romantic or sexual relationship.Intraocular pressureSelf-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV): Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) is a viral vector engineered from the naturally occurring adeno-associated virus (AAV) to be used as a tool for gene therapy. Use of recombinant AAV (rAAV) has been successful in clinical trials addressing a variety of diseases.Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type: Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type (type 1, IRID1) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells.Neuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.TUNEL assayNew Zealand rabbitAutofluorescenceDiabetic retinopathy: ( )Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans.Missense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.Kennel clubAlternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Acute limb ischaemiaThermal cycler