Reference electrode: A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential. The high stability of the electrode potential is usually reached by employing a redox system with constant (buffered or saturated) concentrations of each participants of the redox reaction.Potassium selective electrode: Potassium selective electrodes are a type of ion selective electrode used in biochemical and biophysical research, where measurements of potassium concentration in an aqueous solution are required, usually on a real time basis.Bipolar electrochemistry: Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields. Indeed, this polarization generates a potential difference between the two extremities of the substrate that is equal to the electric field value multiplied by the size of the object.Chronoamperometry: Chronoamperometry is an electrochemical technique in which the potential of the working electrode is stepped and the resulting current from faradaic processes occurring at the electrode (caused by the potential step) is monitored as a function of time. Limited information about the identity of the electrolyzed species can be obtained from the ratio of the peak oxidation current versus the peak reduction current.Multielectrode array: Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry. There are two general classes of MEAs: implantable MEAs, used in vivo, and non-implantable MEAs, used in vitro.Liquid junction potential: Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to diffuse into the comparatively less concentrated one.Filler metal: A filler metal is a metal added in the making of a joint through welding, brazing, or soldering.Graphene nanoribbons: Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, also called nano-graphene ribbons or nano-graphite ribbons), are strips of graphene with ultra-thin width (Fluorescent glucose biosensor: Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market,No fluorescent biosensor has yet entered the medical market, however, in the market for research tools several fluorescent biosensors are present, such as a kit using [Vibrio fischeri] but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles: Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles are colloidal gold whose surface is modified with thiol capped synthetic DNA sequences. They were co-discovered by Chad Mirkin et al.Conductometry: Conductometry is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. Conductometry has notable application in analytical chemistry, where conductometric titration is a standard technique.Jakob SegalCarbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Mains electricity by country: Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting.Sensory stimulation therapy: Sensory stimulation therapy (SST) is an experimental therapy that aims to utilize neural plasticity mechanisms to aid in the recovery of somatosensory function after stroke or cognitive ageing. Stroke and cognitive ageing are well known sources of cognitive loss, the former by neuronal death, the later by weakening of neural connections.Cable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Bioelectrochemical reactor: Bioelectrochemical reactors are a type of bioreactor where bioelectrochemical processes can take place. They are used in bioelectrochemical syntheses, environmental remediation and electrochemical energy conversion.NeurostimulationVentricular action potentialAging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Transparent conducting film: Transparent conducting films (TCFs) are optically transparent and electrically conductive in thin layers. They are an important component of a number of electronic devices including liquid-crystal displays, OLEDs, touchscreens and photovoltaics.Ideally polarizable electrode: Ideally polarizable electrode (also ideal polarizable electrode or ideally polarized electrode), in electrochemistry, is an electrode characterized by an absence of net current between the two sides of the electrical double layer, i.e.Periodic current reversalPlatinum nanoparticles: Platinum nanoparticles are usually in the form of a suspension or colloidConductive Polymer / Solvent Systems: Solutions or Dispersions?, Bernhard Wessling, 1996 of submicrometre-size particles of platinum in a fluid, usually water.Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars polarization: In dielectric spectroscopy, large frequency dependent contributions to the dielectric response, especially at low frequencies, may come from build-ups of charge.CalibrationSubdural space: The subdural space (or subdural cavity) is a potential space that can be opened by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma, pathologic process, or the absence of cerebrospinal fluid as seen in a cadaver. In the cadaver, due to the absence of cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, the arachnoid mater falls away from the dura mater.Demodulation: Demodulation is the act of extracting the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit (or computer program in a software-defined radio) that is used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave.Chlorinated polyvinyl chlorideFerrocyanide: Ferrocyanide is the name of the anion [Fe(CN)6]4−. Salts of this coordination complex give yellow solutions.Glucose oxidase: ; }}Carbon nanotube chemistry: Carbon nanotube chemistry involves chemical reactions, which are used to modify the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs can be functionalized to attain desired properties that can be used in a wide variety of applications.CardioversionFF Scala: FF Scala is an old style, humanist, serif typeface designed by Dutch typeface designer Martin Majoor in 1990 for the Muziekcentrum Vredenburg in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The FF Scala font family was named for the Teatro alla Scala (1776–78) in Milan, Italy.Thin Film Electronics ASAElectrolysis: In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially highly important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell.Borosilicate glass: Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents. Borosilicate glasses are known for having very low coefficients of thermal expansion (~3 × 10−6 /°C at 20 °C), making them resistant to thermal shock, more so than any other common glass.Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis is a technology for restoring sight to blind patients suffering from degenerative retinal diseases. In retinal degenerative diseases such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age-Related Macular Degeneration, patients loss ‘image capturing’ photo-receptors, but, neurons in the ‘image-processing’ inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved.Phon: The phon is a unit of loudness level for pure tones. Its purpose is to compensate for the effect of frequency on the perceived loudness of tones.AutoAnalyzer: The AutoAnalyzer is an automated analyzer using a flow technique called continuous flow analysis (CFA), first made by the Technicon Corporation. The instrument was invented 1957 by Leonard Skeggs, PhD and commercialized by Jack Whitehead's Technicon Corporation.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Prelingual deafness: A prelingual deaf individual is someone who was born with a hearing loss, or whose hearing loss occurred before they began to speak. Infants usually start saying their first words around one year.Chrome platingTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Stereotactic surgeryArgentium sterling silver: Argentium silver 935 is a modern sterling silver alloy, containing 93.5% silver, in which the traditional alloy (92.Electrical conductivity meterIridium(III) chlorideCats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Proton exchange membrane fuel cellGene electrotransfer: Gene electrotransfer is a versatile biotechnology technique that enables the transfer of genetic material into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane.Kennel clubSurface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Auditory event: Auditory events describe the subjective perception, when listening to a certain sound situation. This term was introduced by Jens Blauert (Ruhr-University Bochum) in 1966, in order to distinguish clearly between the physical sound field and the auditory perception of the sound.Carl Gustaf Bernhard: Carl Gustaf Bernhard (28 April 1910, Jakob parish, Stockholm Municipality – 13 January 2001, Lidingö parish) was a Swedish physician, neurophysiologist and academic.He was married all his life to Gurli Lemon-Bernhard, operasinger and soprano.Polymer blend: A polymer blend or polymer mixture is a member of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. Section 3.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Nanowire: A nanowire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometer (10−9 meters). It can also be defined as the ratio of the length to width being greater than 1000.Diamond Film: The Diamond Film () is a film award recognising domestic box office achievements in the Netherlands. The Diamond Film is awarded to films from the Netherlands once they have sold 1,000,000 cinema tickets or more during the original circulation.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Dye-sensitized solar cell: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC or DYSCWan, Haiying "Dye Sensitized Solar Cells", University of Alabama Department of Chemistry, p. 3) is a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells.Epilepsy Research UK: Epilepsy Research UK is a British medical research charity dedicated to curing epilepsy.Ventricular dyssynchrony: In cardiology, Ventricular dyssynchrony is a difference in the timing, or lack of synchrony, of contractions in different ventricles in the heart. Large differences in timing of contractions can reduce cardiac efficiency and is correlated with heart failure.Eagle syndrome: Eagle syndrome (also termed stylohyoid syndrome styloid syndrome, styloid-stylohyoid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome) is a rare condition caused by an elongated or deviated styloid process and/or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which interferes with adjacent anatomical structures giving rise to pain.LUSAS: LUSAS is a UK-based developer and supplier of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) application software products that bear the same name.Tetrode transistor: A tetrode transistor is any transistor having four active terminals.Compound muscle action potential: The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).Pacemaker syndrome: Pacemaker syndrome is a disease that represents the clinical consequences of suboptimal atrioventricular (AV) synchrony or AV dyssynchrony, regardless of the pacing mode, after pacemaker implantation.Film capacitor: Film capacitors, plastic film capacitors, film dielectric capacitors, or polymer film capacitors, generically called “film caps” as well as power film capacitors, are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film as the dielectric, sometimes combined with paper as carrier of the electrodes. The dielectric films, depending on the desired dielectric strength, are drawn in a special process to an extremely thin thickness, and are then provided with electrodes.Psychoacoustics: Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music).EEGLAB: EEGLAB is a MATLAB toolbox distributed under the free GNU GPL license for processing data from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and other electrophysiological signals. Along with all the basic processing tools, EEGLAB implements independent component analysis (ICA), time/frequency analysis, artifact rejection, and several modes of data visualization.