Drug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.CYP2C9*3: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), a member of the CYP2C enzyme subfamily, ranks amongst the mostList of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.Microsome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Drug action: The action of drugs on the human body is called pharmacodynamics, and what the body does with the drug is called pharmacokinetics. The drugs that enter the human tend to stimulate certain receptors, ion channels, act on enzymes or transporter proteins.Idiosyncratic drug reactionPolypharmacy: thumbDrug reaction testing: Drug reaction testing uses a genetic test to predict how a particular person will respond to various prescription and non-prescription medications. It checks for genes that code for specific liver enzymes which activate, deactivate, or are influenced by various drugs.Drug reference standard: A drug reference standard is a standardized substance which is used as a measurement base for similar substances. Where the exact active substances of a new drug are not known, a reference standard provides a calibrated level of biological effects against which new preparations of the drug can be compared.KetoconazoleBiotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.WarfarinCombination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).ATC code B01: ==B01A Antithrombotic agents==PhenytoinVaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-managed by the U.S.Hypericum hirsutum: Hypericum hirsutum is a flowering plant in the genus Hypericum commonly known as hairy St John's-wort. It is found in Western Europe.MidazolamUnapproved Drugs Initiative: Unapproved Drugs Initiative is a programme by the U.S Food and Drug Administration announced in June 2006 to remove unapproved drugs from the market.TariquidarPharmacometrics: Pharmacometrics can be defined as that branch of science concerned with mathematical models of biology, pharmacology, disease, and physiology used to describe and quantify interactions between xenobiotics and patients (human and non-human), including beneficial effects and adverse effects. It is normally applied to quantify drug, disease and trial information to aid efficient drug development, regulatory decisions and rational drug treatment in patients.BupropionClavaminate synthase: Clavaminate synthase (, clavaminate synthase 2, clavaminic acid synthase) is an enzyme with system name deoxyamidinoproclavaminate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAgonist–antagonistCaryocar glabrum: Caryocar glabrum is a flowering plant species in the genus Caryocar.RitonavirVoriconazoleCimetidineConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.DesmethoxyyangoninProtease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.ParoxetineAnticoagulant: Anticoagulants are a class of drugs that work to prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood. Such substances occur naturally in leeches and blood-sucking insects.ItraconazoleProtective index: The protective index is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity. Quantitatively, it is the ratio given by the toxic dose divided by the therapeutic dose.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.SulfoxideNelfinavirQuinidineConference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Barbiturate dependenceM-Cumenyl methylcarbamateHydroxylation: Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound. In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases.Organic anion-transporting polypeptide: An organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) is a membrane transport protein or 'transporter' that mediates the transport of mainly organic anions across the cell membrane. Therefore OATPs are present in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, acting as the cell's gatekeepers.StatinProton-pump inhibitorHeath beekeeping: Heath beekeeping () was a specialist form of beekeeping, which was intensively practised by beekeepers on the Lüneburg Heath from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, but which is now very rarely encountered. It was also referred to as Lüneburger Schwarmbienenzucht (Lüneburg honey bee breeding) Lüneburger Heideimkerei (Lüneburg Heath beekeeping) or Lüneburger Korbimkerei (Lüneburg basket beekeeping).Silybum marianumDigoxinRhabdomyolysisPhenylbutazonePimpleEfavirenzConstitutive enzyme: Constitutive enzymeshttp://goldbook.iupac.ImipramineHomopipramolPharmacogenetics: Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. The term pharmacogenetics is often used interchangeably with the term pharmacogenomics which also investigates the role of acquired and inherited genetic differences in relation to drug response and drug behavior through a systematic examination of genes, gene products, and inter- and intra-individual variation in gene expression and function.Soyasapogenol glucuronosyltransferase: Soyasapogenol glucuronosyltransferase (, UGASGT) is an enzyme with system name UDP-D-glucuronate:soyasapogenol 3-O-D-glucuronosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China: The Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (PPRC), compiled by the Pharmacopoeia Commission of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, is an official compendium of drugs, covering Traditional Chinese and western medicines, which includes information on the standards of purity, description, test, dosage, precaution, storage, and the strength for each drug.BenzotriazoleIontocaineCollege of Practitioners of PhytotherapyHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.ATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==