DNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.Origin of replication: The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.Technical Glossary Edward K.DNA-binding proteinColes PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.BAH domain: In molecular biology, the BAH domain (bromo-adjacent homology) domain is found in proteins such as eukaryotic DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases, the origin recognition complex 1 (Orc1) proteins, as well as several proteins involved in transcriptional regulation. The BAH domain appears to act as a protein-protein interaction module specialised in gene silencing, as suggested for example by its interaction within yeast Orc1p with the silent information regulator Sir1p.T7 DNA polymerase: T7 DNA polymerase is an enzyme used during the DNA replication of the T7 bacteriophage. During this process, the DNA polymerase “reads” existing DNA strands and creates two new strands that match the existing ones.DnaX: DnaX is the gene that codes for the τ and γ subunits of the DNA clamp loader of prokaryotes. The eukaryotic equivalent to the DNA clamp loader is Replication Factor C, which is encoded by RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4, and RFC5.Start point (yeast): The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast. The Start checkpoint ensures irreversible cell-cycle entry even if conditions later become unfavorable.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Hydroxyurea dermopathyG2-M DNA damage checkpoint: The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. This checkpoint ensures that cells don't initiate mitosis before they have a chance to repair damaged DNA after replication.Sticky and blunt ends: DNA end or sticky end refers to the properties of the end of a molecule of DNA or a recombinant DNA molecule. The concept is important in molecular biology, especially in cloning or when subcloning inserts DNA into vector DNA.Base excision repair: frame|right|Basic steps of base excision repair|Basic steps of base excision repairPrimase: DNA primase, also called as DNA primerase, is an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA. DNA primase is a type of RNA polymerase which creates an RNA primer (later this RNA piece is removed by a 5' to 3' exonuclease); next, DNA polymerase uses the RNA primer to replicate ssDNA.Bivalent chromatin: Bivalent chromatin are segments of DNA, bound to histone proteins, that have both repressing and activating epigenetic regulators in the same region. These regulators work to enhance or silence the expression of genes.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.HolE: In E. coli and other bacteria, holE is a gene that encodes the theta subunit of DNA polymerase III.Klenow fragmentNucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Geminin: Geminin, DNA replication inhibitor, also known as GMNN, is a protein in humans encoded by the GMNN gene.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology. It is a unicellular eukaryote, whose cells are rod-shaped.QMCF Technology: QMCF Technology is an episomal protein expression system that uses genetically modified mammalian cells and specially designed plasmids. QMCF plasmids carry a combination of regulatory sequences from mouse polyomavirus (Py) DNA replication origin which in combination with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-1 protein binding site as nuclear retention elements ensure stable propagation of plasmids in mammalian cells.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Primosome: In molecular biology, a primosome is a protein complex responsible for creating RNA primers on single stranded DNA during DNA replication.Serine/threonine-specific protein kinaseLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Chromo shadow domain: In molecular biology, the chromo shadow domain is a protein domain which is distantly related to the chromodomain. It is always found in association with a chromodomain.CccDNA: cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form that is ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring.Histone octamer: A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle. It consists of two copies of each of the four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4).Adenovirus genome: Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes.UVB-induced apoptosis: UVB-induced apoptosis is the programmed cell death of cells that become damaged by ultraviolet rays. This is notable in skin cells, to prevent melanoma.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.AAA proteins: For other uses see AAA (disambiguation)Sgs1: Sgs1, also known as slow growth suppressor 1, is a DNA helicase protein found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is a homolog of the bacterial RecQ helicase.Thymidine diphosphatePituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.