Loop diureticThiazideLosartan/hydrochlorothiazide: Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide is a combination drug used as an antihypertensive, consisting of losartan (an angiotensin II receptor antagonist) and hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic).BentazonTriamtereneBendroflumethiazideB. Vithal Shetty: Dr. Bola Vithal Shetty is an India born American scientist who developed Metolazone and was associated with the Food and Drug Administration agency.Lidanserin: Lidanserin (INN; ZK-33,839) is a drug which acts as a combined 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It was developed as an antihypertensive agent but was never marketed.BumetanideEtacrynic acidPerindopril/indapamideHypertensionHypokalemiaUrinary index: The urinary indices are the fractional sodium excretion (FENa) index and the renal failure index (RFI).SpironolactoneManagement of heart failure: Management of heart failure requires a multimodal approach. It involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medications, and possibly the use of devices or surgery.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Mercurial diureticTrans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).HydronephrosisCyclopenthiazideAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.ClopamideWater-electrolyte imbalanceHyponatremiaPolyelectrolyteATC code M04: ==M04A Antigout preparations==TophusDigoxinRenin: Renin, Iran}}Prothoracicotropic hormone: Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered. It was originally described simply as "brain hormone" by early workers such as Stefan Kopeć (1922) and Vincent Wigglesworth (1934),Wigglesworth, V.OryzalinATC code C08: ==C08C Selective calcium channel blockers with mainly vascular effects==Aldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Mannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Filtration fraction: In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Urination: Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including tinkling, peeing, weeing, and pissing.MethyclothiazideHyperchloremiaPeripheral edemaJournal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Peripheral Vascular Disease. The journal's editors are Graham MacGregor and Peter Sever.Potassium deficiency (plants): ==Soil type and potassium deficiency==Low sodium diet: A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium dietTropaeolum tricolor: Tropaeolum tricolor, the three-coloured Indian cress, is a species of perennial plant in the family Tropaeolaceae. It is endemic to Chile,Tropaeolum tricolor (three-coloured Indian cress).Sulfonamide (medicine): Sulfonamide or sulphonamide is the basis of several groups of drugs. The original antibacterial sulfonamides (sometimes called sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group.Halotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.CreatinineAlaceprilMagnesium (pharmaceutical preparation): Magnesium, as a pharmaceutical preparation, is used to treat conditions including magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesemia, as well as eclampsia. Magnesium is important to health.Rhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Urodynamic testingOliguria