Urinary index: The urinary indices are the fractional sodium excretion (FENa) index and the renal failure index (RFI).Loop diureticKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Vasopressin analogue: Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin.Salting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.Urination: Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including tinkling, peeing, weeing, and pissing.HypernatremiaInulinAminohippuric acidMannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Renal medullaRhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).Filtration fraction: In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).PolyuriaTrans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.PolyelectrolyteHalotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.Organic prepartum and postpartum psychosesUrodynamic testingDiabetes insipidusAnuriaHyponatremiaAldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Urea reduction ratio: For the Scottish river see: Urr WaterAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Kennel clubHydronephrosisRenin: Renin, Iran}}Chronic cellular dehydrationCasomorphin: Casomorphins are peptides, i.e.Lactated Ringer's solution: Ringer's lactate solution, also known as Ringer-Locke's solution, is a solution that is isotonic with blood. It is intended for intravenous administration in humans, but in veterinary use may also be given subcutaneously.Potassium deficiency (plants): ==Soil type and potassium deficiency==DesmopressinCreatinineRhabdomyolysisSpiradolineXuzhou Medical CollegeEtacrynic acidTissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.Intravascular volume status: In medicine, intravascular volume status refers to the volume of blood in a patient's circulatory system, and is essentially the blood plasma component of the overall volume status of the body, which otherwise includes both intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. Still, the intravascular component is usually of primary interest, and volume status is sometimes used synonymously with intravascular volume status.Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretionWater-electrolyte imbalanceOliguriaRelcovaptanCyclazocineHypophysectomyProximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.Prothoracicotropic hormone: Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered. It was originally described simply as "brain hormone" by early workers such as Stefan Kopeć (1922) and Vincent Wigglesworth (1934),Wigglesworth, V.Atrial natriuretic peptide: ANP}}Renal cortexAnesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.Opioid receptor: Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. The endogenous opioids are dynorphins, enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins and nociceptin.Hydraulic fracturing proppants: A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. It is added to a frac'ing fluid which may vary in composition depending on the type of fracturing used, and can be gel, foam or slickwater–based.Glitter cell: Glitter cells are neutrophils that are found in the urine, most commonly associated with urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. They derive their name from their appearance when viewed on a wet mount preparation under a microscope; the granules within their cytoplasm can be seen moving, giving them a "glittering appearance.Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934Intravenous sodium bicarbonateTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying