DialysisPeritoneal equilibration test: In nephrology, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET), is a tool used by nephrologists to determine the characteristics of the peritoneal membrane mass transport characteristics, when assessing a patient for peritoneal dialysis.Peritoneal dialysisActovegin: Actovegin is a highly filtered extract obtained from calf blood which enhances aerobic oxidation in mammals. This improves absorption of glucose and oxygen uptake in tissue, which may enhance physical performance and stamina.Dialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.BicarbonateUltrafiltered milk: Ultrafiltered milk (UF milk) is a subclassification of milk protein concentrate that is produced by passing milk under pressure through a thin, porous membrane to separate the components of milk according to their size, permitting greater efficiency in cheese making. Specifically, ultra filtration allows the smaller lactose, water, mineral, and vitamin molecules to pass through the membrane, while the larger protein and fat molecule (key components for making cheese) are retained and concentrated.IlmeniteDecyl polyglucose: Decyl polyglucose is a mild non-ionic synthetic surfactant. It is a type of alkylpolyglycoside derived from glucose or starch and the fatty alcohol decanol.TE buffer: TE buffer is a commonly used buffer solution in molecular biology, especially in procedures involving DNA, cDNA or RNA. "TE" is derived from its components: Tris, a common pH buffer, and EDTA, a molecule that chelates cations like Mg2+.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitisDialysis (biochemistry): In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, such as dialysis tubing.Nathan W. LevinGlucose transporterGlycylglycinePeritoneal cavitySurface modification of biomaterials with proteins: Biomaterials are materials that are used in contact with biological systems. Biocompatibility and applicability of surface modification with current uses of metallic, polymeric and ceramic biomaterials allow alteration of properties to enhance performance in a biological environment while retaining bulk properties of the desired device.Mannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Urea reduction ratio: For the Scottish river see: Urr WaterAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Dialysis catheterSalting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOsmotic diuretic: An osmotic diuretic is a type of diuretic that inhibits reabsorption of water and sodium (Na). They are pharmacologically inert substances that are given intravenously.UremiaOsmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Xuzhou Medical CollegeAdvanced glycation end-product: In human nutrition and biology, advanced glycation end products, known as AGEs, are substances that can be a factor in the development or worsening of many degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic renal failure, and Alzheimer's disease.CreatinineBisalbuminemia: Bisalbuminemia is the, sometimes inherited, condition of having two types of serum albumin that differ in mobility during electrophoresis. It can be seen in densitometry as a bifid mountain where albumin has 2 heads.Mediated transportAbagovomabHyaluronan synthase: Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) are membrane-bound enzymes which use UDP-α-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and UDP-α-D-glucuronate as substrates to produce the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan at the cell surface and extrude it through the membrane into the extracellular space.Sodium hexametaphosphateStratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Lactated Ringer's solution: Ringer's lactate solution, also known as Ringer-Locke's solution, is a solution that is isotonic with blood. It is intended for intravenous administration in humans, but in veterinary use may also be given subcutaneously.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.