Prelingual deafness: A prelingual deaf individual is someone who was born with a hearing loss, or whose hearing loss occurred before they began to speak. Infants usually start saying their first words around one year.Crandall syndrome: Crandall syndrome is a very rare congenital disorder characterised by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, hair loss associated with pili torti, and hypogonadism demonstrated through low levels of luteinising hormone and growth hormone. It is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder closely related to Björnstad syndrome which presents similarly but without hypogonadism.Hearing (person): The term hearing or hearing person, from the perspective of mainstream English-language culture, refers to someone whose sense of hearing is at the medical norm. From this point of view, someone who is not fully hearing has a hearing loss or is said to be hard of hearing or deaf.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary -, a part of The New York Times Company.OpsismodysplasiaFrequency following response: Frequency following response (FFR), also referred to as Frequency Following Potential (FFP), is an evoked potential generated by periodic or nearly-periodic auditory stimuli.Burkard, R.Connexon: In biology, a connexon, also known as a connexin hemichannel or a pannexin channel, is an assembly of six proteins called connexins that form the pore for a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells. This channel allows for bidirectional flow of ions and signaling molecules.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).CROS hearing aid: A Contralateral Routing Of Signals (CROS)Harford, E., Barry, J.Stereocilia (inner ear): In the inner ear, stereocilia are the mechanosensing organelles of hair cells, which respond to fluid motion in numerous types of animals for various functions, including hearing and balance. They are about 10–50 micrometers in length and share some similar features of microvilli.Spiral pumpEquivalent rectangular bandwidth: The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.Cousin couple: A cousin couple is a pair of cousins who are involved in a romantic or sexual relationship.UsherSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Lip readingAuditory neuropathy: Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a variety of hearing loss in which the outer hair cells within the cochlea are present and functional, but sound information is not faithfully transmitted to the auditory nerve and brain properly. Also known as Auditory Neuropathy/Auditory Dys-synchrony (AN/AD) or Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD).Endolymph: Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa.Wolfram syndromeKa'apor Sign Language: Urubu Sign Language (also known as Urubu–Ka'apor or Ka'apor Sign Language) is a village sign language used by the small community of Ka'apor people in the state of Maranhão. Linguist Jim Kakumasu observed in 1968 that the number of deaf people in the community was 7 out of a population of 500.Petrus Johannes Waardenburg: Petrus Johannes Waardenburg (3 June 1886, Nijeveen, Drenthe – 23 September 1979) was a Dutch ophthalmologist, geneticist, and pioneer in the application of genetics to ophthalmology. Waardenburg syndrome is named after him.HypoparathyroidismAudiometryJervell and Lange-Nielsen syndromeGenetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Dog healthStapesMissense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.Indian Genetic Disease DatabaseChromosome regionsIridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type: Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type (type 1, IRID1) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells.Enlarged vestibular aqueduct: [of right osseous labyrinth]Human hair color: Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Generally, if more eumelanin is present, the colour of the hair is darker; if less eumelanin is present, the hair is lighter.Conductive hearing lossAutoimmune inner ear disease: Autoimmune inner ear disease is a suspected autoimmune disease characterized by rapidly progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss.Inner Ear, Autoimmune (eMedicine, 2006) It occurs when the body's immune system attacks cells in the inner ear that are mistaken for a virus or bacteria.IchthyosisEagle syndrome: Eagle syndrome (also termed stylohyoid syndrome styloid syndrome, styloid-stylohyoid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome) is a rare condition caused by an elongated or deviated styloid process and/or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which interferes with adjacent anatomical structures giving rise to pain.Epicanthic fold: Epicanthic fold (), epicanthal fold, epicanthus, or simply eye fold are names for a skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Other names for this trait include plica palpebronasalis and palpebronasal fold..Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with problems of movement, memory, and the autonomic nervous system. It is related to the disease fragile X syndrome, although FXTAS is a clinically distinct syndrome.GoitreHair cell: Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. Through mechanotransduction, hair cells detect movement in their environment.BeltoneHaplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Alport syndromeBulbar palsyCrystal earpiece: A crystal earpiece, is a type of piezoelectric earphone, producing sound by using a piezoelectric crystal, a material that changes its shape when electricity is applied to it. It is usually designed to plug into the ear canal of the user.ColobomaInternational Center on Deafness and the Arts: International Center On Deafness and the Arts (ICODA) is a non-profit organization based in Northbrook, Illinois, USA. Patricia Scherer is the founder and president.Hypotrichosis–acro-osteolysis–onychogryphosis–palmoplantar keratoderma–periodontitis syndrome: Hypotrichosis–acro-osteolysis–onychogryphosis–palmoplantar keratoderma–periodontitis syndrome (also known as "HOPP syndrome") is a cutaneous condition characterized by a prominent palmoplantar keratoderma.Point mutationAmerican Chopper (season 4)