ΔF508: ΔF508 (delta-F508, full name CFTRΔF508 or F508del-CFTR; rs113993960) is a specific mutation within the gene for a protein called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutation is a deletion of the three nucleotides that comprise the codon for phenylalanine (F) at position 508.Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.Chloride channel: C:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, F:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438HyperchloremiaSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Squamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.ColforsinOleylamineTriiodideCrosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acidO-aminophenol oxidase: O-aminophenol oxidase (, isophenoxazine synthase, o-aminophenol:O2 oxidoreductase, 2-aminophenol:O2 oxidoreductase, GriF) is an enzyme with system name 2-aminophenol:oxygen oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Non-coordinating anion: Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is 'weakly coordinating anion'. Non-coordinating anions are useful in studying the reactivity of electrophilic cations.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.BicarbonateCell membraneColes PhillipsFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Percent active chlorine: Percent active chlorine is a unit of concentration used for hypochlorite-based bleaches. One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach has the same bleaching power as one gram of chlorine.Sweat test: The sweat test measures the concentration of chloride that is excreted in sweat. It is used to screen for cystic fibrosis (CF).Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Gerry Joly: Gérald "Gerry" Joly (b. Hawkesbury, Ontario – d.Bronchus: A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. There is a right bronchus and a left bronchus and these bronchi branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi which branch into smaller tubes, known as bronchioles.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Trachealis muscle: The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.GenistinTrifluoromethanesulfonate: Trifluoromethanesulfonate, also known by the trivial name triflate, is a functional group with the formula CF3SO3−. The triflate group is often represented by -OTf, as opposed to -Tf (triflyl).Biotinylation: In biochemistry, biotinylation is the process of covalently attaching biotin to a protein, nucleic acid or other molecule. Biotinylation is rapid, specific and is unlikely to perturb the natural function of the molecule due to the small size of biotin (MW = 244.Stratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.ThiazolidineKnotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Sodium–hydrogen antiporter: The sodium–hydrogen antiporter or sodium–hydrogen exchanger is a membrane protein found in many cells, and especially in those of the nephron of the kidney. Specifically in the intercalary cells of the collecting duct.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Electrical conductivity meterPeriodic current reversalArtery to the ductus deferens: The artery to the ductus deferens (deferential artery) is an artery in males that provides blood to the ductus deferens.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells: Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. They are therefore particularly sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response(UPR).Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Serum chloride: Chloride is an anion in the human body needed for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy). It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Pancreatic duct: The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung (also, the major pancreatic duct due to the existence of an accessory pancreatic duct), is a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater, after which both ducts perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla.Hematidrosis: Hematidrosis (also called hematohidrosis or hemidrosis or blood sweat. From Greek haima/haimatos αἷμα, αἵματος, blood; hidrōs ἱδρώς blood) is a very rare condition in which a human sweats blood.BAG domain: In molecular biology, BAG domains are protein domains found in proteins which are modulators of chaperone activity, they bind to HSP70/HSC70 proteins and promote substrate release. The proteins have anti-apoptotic activity and increase the anti-cell death function of BCL-2 induced by various stimuli.Pseudomonas infectionMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Cyanate: The cyanate ion is an anion with the chemical formula written as [OCN]− or [CNO]−. In aqueous solution it acts as a base, forming isocyanic acid, HNCO.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.GyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.Missense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.Bombardier Challenger 300: The Bombardier BD-100 Challenger 300 is a super-mid-sized jet capable of traversing transcontinental distances. It is not developmentally related to the similarly named Challenger 600 series, or the 600-derived Challenger 800 series.Mediated transportPoint mutationEndocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Propyl benzoateTransmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.Alternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Sodium channel: Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane. They are classified according to the trigger that opens the channel for such ions, i.Transporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.