Corrosion: Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more stable form, such as its oxide or hydroxide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction with their environment.Steelmaking: Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon are removed from the raw iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel.Titanium nitrideBrightray: Brightray is a nickel-chromium alloy that is noted for its resistance to erosion by gas flow at high temperatures. It was used for hard-facing the exhaust valve heads and seats of petrol engines, particularly aircraft engines from the 1930s onwards.Depletion gilding: Depletion gilding is a method for producing a layer of nearly pure gold on an object made of gold alloy by removing the other metals from its surface. It is sometimes referred to as a "surface enrichment" process.BrittlenessMagnetic shape-memory alloy: Magnetic shape-memory alloys (MSMAs), or ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs), are ferromagnetic materials which exhibit large strains under the influence of an applied magnetic field due to martensitic phase transformation. Magnetic shape-memory alloys, with near-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa being the most studied example, differ from other magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D and Galfenol, as they produce much larger strains by twinning, sometimes as large as 9%, under relatively low bias magnetic fields.Surgical stainless steel: Surgical stainless steel is an informal term which refers to certain grades of stainless steel that are used in biomedical applications. The most common "surgical steels" are austenitic 316 stainless and martensitic 440 and 420 stainless steels.Field emission probesArchwire: An orthodontic archwire is a wire conforming to the alveolar or dental arch that can be used with dental braces as a source of force in correcting irregularities in the position of the teeth. An archwire can also be used to maintain existing dental positions; in this case it has a retentive purpose.Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars polarization: In dielectric spectroscopy, large frequency dependent contributions to the dielectric response, especially at low frequencies, may come from build-ups of charge.Liquid junction potential: Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to diffuse into the comparatively less concentrated one.Conductometry: Conductometry is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. Conductometry has notable application in analytical chemistry, where conductometric titration is a standard technique.Chronoamperometry: Chronoamperometry is an electrochemical technique in which the potential of the working electrode is stepped and the resulting current from faradaic processes occurring at the electrode (caused by the potential step) is monitored as a function of time. Limited information about the identity of the electrolyzed species can be obtained from the ratio of the peak oxidation current versus the peak reduction current.Neodymium: Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air.Nickel electroplating: Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object. The nickel layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or used to build up worn or undersized parts for salvage purposes.Surface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Chrome platingElectrolysis: In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially highly important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell.Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Oil immersionBipolar electrochemistry: Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields. Indeed, this polarization generates a potential difference between the two extremities of the substrate that is equal to the electric field value multiplied by the size of the object.Spent caustic: Spent caustic is a waste industrial caustic solution that has become exhausted and is no longer useful (or spent). Spent caustics are made of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, water, and contaminants.Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy: Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) refers to the measurement of kinetic energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted by molecules which have absorbed ultraviolet photons, in order to determine molecular orbital energies in the valence region.Chromium: Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6.A Plague of Lighthouse Keepers: "A Plague of Lighthouse Keepers" is a track from the English band Van der Graaf Generator's fourth album Pawn Hearts (1971). It is a concept piece over 23 minutes long, which comprises the whole B-side of the album.Biocidal natural building material: A biocidal natural building material is a natural building material which has biocidal properties. The biocidal properties of biocidal natural building materials are inherent to the material, rather than being supplemented afterwards.Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.Platinum nanoparticles: Platinum nanoparticles are usually in the form of a suspension or colloidConductive Polymer / Solvent Systems: Solutions or Dispersions?, Bernhard Wessling, 1996 of submicrometre-size particles of platinum in a fluid, usually water.Codrug: A codrug or mutual prodrug consists of two synergistic drugs chemically linked together, in order to improve the drug delivery properties of one or both drugs. The constituent drugs are indicated for the same disease, but may exert different therapeutic effects via disparate mechanisms of action.Waviness: Waviness is the measurement of the more widely spaced component of surface texture. It is a broader view of roughness because it is more strictly defined as "the irregularities whose spacing is greater than the roughness sampling length".Alan S. Kornacki: Alan Stanley Kornacki (born May 4, 1952, in Bayonne, New Jersey) is an American geologist and retired Army colonel, currently the Senior Staff Geochemist at Shell International Exploration and Production Inc."...Spin casting: Spin casting, also known as centrifugal rubber mold casting (CRMC), is a method of utilizing centrifugal force to produce castings from a rubber mold. Typically, a disc-shaped mold is spun along its central axis at a set speed.Surface modification of biomaterials with proteins: Biomaterials are materials that are used in contact with biological systems. Biocompatibility and applicability of surface modification with current uses of metallic, polymeric and ceramic biomaterials allow alteration of properties to enhance performance in a biological environment while retaining bulk properties of the desired device.Argentium sterling silver: Argentium silver 935 is a modern sterling silver alloy, containing 93.5% silver, in which the traditional alloy (92.Palladium(II) chlorideCable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.
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