Potash: Potash is any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.Potash, USGS 2008 Minerals Yearbook The name derives from "pot ash", which refers to plant ashes soaked in water in a pot, the primary means of manufacturing the product before the industrial era.Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Electrospray ionizationP-AnisidineUnsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Glen Davis Shale Oil Works: The Glen Davis Shale Oil Works was a shale oil extraction plant in Glen Davis, New South Wales, Australia which operated from 1940 until 1952 and was the last oil-shale operation in Australia until the Stuart Oil Shale Project in the late 1990s.Donora Smog Museum: Donora Smog Museum features a collection of archival materials documenting the Donora Smog of 1948, an air inversion of smog containing fluorine that killed 20 people in Donora, Pennsylvania, United States, a mill town 20 miles south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela River.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Benzo(k)fluorantheneSealcoat: Sealcoat is a bituminous liquid mixture that is applied to asphalt.Coles PhillipsTandem mass spectrometry: 300 px|right|thumb|A [[Quadrupole mass analyzer|quadrupole time-of-flight hybrid tandem mass spectrometer.]]Benzo(e)pyreneSEA Native Peptide LigationPrinomastatGas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbNational Ambient Air Quality Standards: The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.Plant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Ammonia volatilization from urea: Urea (46-0-0) accounts for more than fifty percent of the world’s nitrogenous fertilizers.Schwab, G.Soft laser desorption: Soft laser desorption is laser desorption of large molecules that results in ionization without fragmentation. "Soft" in the context of ion formation means forming ions without breaking chemical bonds.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are by-products of various industrial processes, and are commonly regarded as highly toxic compounds that are environmental pollutants and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They include:ToxicityLattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.List of Superfund sites in the United States: These are lists of Superfund sites in the United States, designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Superfund sites are polluted locations requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations.Nucleoside phosphoramiditeElectron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Particulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.Transition metal benzyne complex: Transition metal benzyne complexes are organometallic complexes that contain benzyne ligands (C6H4). Unlike benzyne itself, these complexes are less reactive although they undergo a number of insertion reactions.Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.Animals and tobacco smoke: Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place.Xenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.PhytomedicineBenzofuranSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Chromatographic response function: Chromatographic response function, often abbreviated to CRF, is a coefficient which measures the quality of the separation in the result of a chromatography.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Shape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Mutagen: In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Exhaust gasCoulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Metabolomics: Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Biotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Smokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Isotope-coded affinity tag: An Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) is an isotopic labeling method used for quantitative proteomics by mass spectrometry that uses chemical labeling reagents. "Rapid quantitative analysis of proteins or protein function in complex mixtures," Rudolf Hans Aebersold et al.ForskolinDrug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Isomerization: In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform: Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)C.-P.
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