Colitis: - K52Microscopic colitisLymphocytic colitis: Lymphocytic colitis, a subtype of microscopic colitis, is a rare condition characterized by chronic non-bloody watery diarrhea. The colonoscopy is normal but the mucosal biopsy reveals an accumulation of lymphocytes in the colonic epithelium and connective tissue (lamina propria).Crohn's Disease Activity Index: The Crohn's Disease Activity Index or CDAI is a research tool used to quantify the symptoms of patients with Crohn's disease. This is of useful importance in research studies done on medications used to treat Crohn's disease; most major studies on newer medications use the CDAI in order to define response or remission of disease.Transverse folds of rectum: The transverse folds of rectum (or Houston's valves) are semi-lunar transverse folds of the rectal wall that protrude into the rectum, not the anal canal as that lies below the rectum. Their use seems to be to support the weight of fecal matter, and prevent its urging toward the anus, which would produce a strong urge to defecate.SulfasalazineMyeloperoxidase deficiency: Myeloperoxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder featuring deficiency, either in quantity or of function, of myeloperoxidase, an enzyme found in certain phagocytic immune cells, especially polymorphonuclear leukocytes.FontolizumabColectomyProctocolectomy: Proctocolectomy is the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon. It is a most widely accepted surgical method for ulcerative colitis and Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) .Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Virtual colonoscopy: Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen. The procedure is used to diagnose colon and bowel disease, including polyps, diverticulosis and cancer.IleostomyIferanserin: Iferanserin (INN; VEN-309) is a drug which acts as a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. It is under development as an intra-rectal formulation for the treatment of hemorrhoid disease, and as of February 2012, is in phase IIb clinical trials.Colitis-X: Colitis X, equine colitis X or peracute toxemic colitis is a catchall term for various fatal forms of acute or peracute colitis found in horses, but particularly a fulminant colitis where clinical signs include sudden onset of severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, shock, and dehydration. Death is common, with 90% to 100% mortality, usually in less than 24 hours.Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a severe systemic response to food protein that typically occurs 1 to 4 hours after the ingestion of the causative food and frequently develops in the first few years of life.Powell GK.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Acetic acid bacteria: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during fermentation. They are gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.Mutaflor: Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacteria strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.Mutaflor Information page "The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917-designated DSM 6601 in the German Collection for Microorganisms in Braunschweig is one of the best-examined and therapeutically relevant bacterial strains worldwide" as claimed by the manufacturerManufacturers WebsiteProinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.CecectomyIntimin: Intimin is a virulence factor (adhesin) of EPEC (e.g.IleitisFetor hepaticusCelecoxibToxic megacolonC3H3NO2Brain biopsyFidaxomicinInflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Sigmoidocele: Sigmoidocele (also known as Pouch of Douglas descent) refers to a condition where the sigmoid colon descends (prolapses) into the lower pelvic cavity. This can obstruct the rectum and cause symptoms of obstructed defecation.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.ProctitisHaustrum (anatomy): The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the large intestine.Secondary sclerosing cholangitis: Secondary sclerosing cholangitis abbreviated as (SSC) is a disease that is morphologically similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but that originates from a known pathological process. Its clinical and cholangiographic features may mimic PSC, yet its natural history may be more favorable if recognition is prompt and appropriate therapy is introduced.AzathioprineOncotype DX Colon Cancer AssayPrednisoloneG-CSF factor stem-loop destabilising elementFluorobenzeneGlasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia: Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) is an autosomal recessive disorder of bone growth that results in skeletal abnormalities, severe hearing loss, and distinctive facial features. The name of the condition indicates that it affects hearing (oto-) and the bones of the spine (spondylo-), and enlarges the ends of bones (megaepiphyses).Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer: A penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic lesion that ulcerates, leading to a hematoma forming within the walls of the aorta.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.