Cofactor Engineering: Cofactor engineering, a subset of metabolic engineering, is defined as the manipulation of the use of cofactors in an organism’s metabolic pathways. In cofactor engineering, the concentrations of cofactors are changed in order to maximize or minimize metabolic fluxes.NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic): NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic) (, ubiquinone reductase, coenzyme Q reductase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-ubiquinone reductase, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, NADH-coenzyme Q reductase, NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, NADH-CoQ reductase) is an enzyme with system name NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionACSL6: Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACSL6 gene. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases such as ACSL6, catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA from fatty acids, ATP, and CoA.Vitamin B12-binding domain: In molecular biology, the vitamin B12-binding domain is a protein domain which binds to cobalamin (vitamin B12). It can bind two different forms of the cobalamin cofactor, with cobalt bonded either to a methyl group (methylcobalamin) or to 5'-deoxyadenosine (adenosylcobalamin).HMG-CoA reductase: HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, ; NADPH-dependent, ) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol.MesnaPantothenic acidMethanopyrus: In taxonomy, Methanopyrus is a genus of the Methanopyraceae.See the NCBI webpage on Methanopyrus.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Methylated-thiol-coenzyme M methyltransferase: Methylated-thiol-coenzyme M methyltransferase (, mtsA (gene)) is an enzyme with system name methylated-thiol:coenzyme M methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionCO-methylating acetyl-CoA synthase: Acetyl-CoA Synthase (ACS), not to be confused with Acetyl-CoA Synthetase or Acetate-CoA Ligase (ADP forming), is a Nickel containing enzyme involved in the metabolic processes of cells. Together with Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), it forms the bifunctional enzyme Acetyl-CoA Synthase/Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (ACS/CODH) found in anaerobic organisms such as archaea and eubacteria.HMG-CoAStatinProkaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein: In molecular biology, the prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria.Palmitoyl-CoAFormate-nitrite transporter: Formate-nitrite transporters are a family of evolutionarily related transmembrane bacterial and archaebacterial proteins involved in transporting formate or nitrite. They include:LovastatinMalonyl-CoA O-methyltransferase: Malonyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (, BioC) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:malonyl-CoA O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionGlucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Coles PhillipsSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Cys/Met metabolism PLP-dependent enzyme family: In molecular biology, the Cys/Met metabolism PLP-dependent enzyme family is a family of proteins including enzymes involved in cysteine and methionine metabolism which use PLP (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate) as a cofactor.Methylmalonyl-CoATable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Butyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.CorrinList of important publications in medicine: The definitive bibliographic source of books and articles demonstrating the history of medicine and identifying the first publications in the field is "Garrison and Morton". (Morton, Leslie T.Cobalamin biosynthesis: {{Infobox protein familyDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Oxidoreductase FAD-binding domain: B:7-104 B:7-104 B:7-104Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIAcid catalysis: In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base. The acid is the proton donor and the base is the proton acceptor.Glutamate dehydrogenase: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle.HMG-CoA synthase: In molecular biology, HMG-CoA synthase is an enzyme which catalyzes the reaction in which Acetyl-CoA condenses with acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). It is the second reaction in the mevalonate-dependent isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway.Alcohol dehydrogenaseO-methyltransferase: An O-methylated flavonoid (OMT) is a type of methyltransferase enzyme transferring a methyl group on a molecule.SCH-442,416Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.CholesterolPropylene oxideClostridium phytofermentans: Clostridium phytofermentans is an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium. It forms spherical spores.Group IV pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases: In molecular biology, group IV pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases are a family of enzymes comprising ornithine decarboxylase , lysine decarboxylase , arginine decarboxylase and diaminopimelate decarboxylase. It is also known as the Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase class-II family.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.AcetyltransferaseRossmann foldHeptadecanoic acidSterol carrier protein: A:437-540 A:437-540 A:628-731Glutamate-1-semialdehydeButylparabenLauryldimethylamine oxideACACB: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene.PterinSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Thiolase: 350px|thumb|Mevalonate pathwayProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Reaction coordinateMitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.PyridoxamineBeta-ketothiolase deficiency: Beta-ketothiolase deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly process the amino acid isoleucine or the products of lipid breakdown.Thiamine pyrophosphateSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Flavin groupAmphibacillus xylanus: Amphibacillus xylanus or A. xylanus is a gram-positive-spore forming bacterium with cells 0.SarpogrelatePravastatinHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Nitrile hydratase: In enzymology, nitrile hydratases (NHases; ) are mononuclear iron or non-corrinoid cobalt enzymes that catalyse the hydration of diverse nitriles to their corresponding amidesSodium propionate