Chronic painCancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Hypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Thermal grill illusion: The thermal grill illusion is a sensory illusion originally demonstrated in 1896 by the Swedish physician Torsten Thunberg. The illusion is created by an interlaced grill of warm (e.Low back painOpioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Compound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Neuropathic painBon Secours Hospital, Cork: The Bon Secours Hospital, Cork is a private hospital in Cork, Ireland. Owned by the Roman Catholic Bon Secours Sisters, it offers healthcare to privately insured patients.Pelvic congestion syndrome: Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. The condition causes chronic pain, often manifesting as a constant dull ache, which can be aggravated by standing.Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain: The Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain is a quarterly Peer review-peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on chronic muscle and bone pain, including fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It is published by Informa Healthcare.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Fibromyalgia: – FibromyalgiaPreventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Rachel Morris (cyclist): Rachel Morris (born on 25 April 1979) is a British Paralympic handcyclist who won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Paralympics. She lost both her legs to Complex regional pain syndrome and cycles, in part, to manage the pain.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Dry needling: Dry needling (Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needlinghttp://www.ncbi.Oxycodone/paracetamolInternational Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Inguinal hernia surgery: Inguinal hernia surgery refers to a surgical operation for the correction of an inguinal hernia. Surgery is not generally advised in most cases if the Hernia produces no symptoms; watchful waiting being the recommended option.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Visceral pain: Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera (organs). Visceral structures are highly sensitive to distension (stretch), ischemia and inflammation, but relatively insensitive to other stimuli that normally evoke pain such as cutting or burning.Superior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.VincristineInternational Classification of Headache Disorders: The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society. It is considered the official classification of headaches by the World Health Organization, and, in 1992, was incorporated into the 10th edition of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).Sickness behavior: [Ancher 001.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Ancher, Michael], "The Sick Girl", 1882, [[Statens Museum for Kunst.Electroanalgesia: Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain. Electrical devices can be internal or external, at the site of pain (local) or delocalized throughout the whole body.Doctor of Clinical HypnotherapySurgical mesh: Surgical mesh is a loosely woven sheet which is used as either a permanent or temporary support for organs and other tissues during surgery. The meshes are available in both inorganic and biological materials, and are used in a variety of surgeries.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.AcupunctureNerve blockHydromorphoneSensory stimulation therapy: Sensory stimulation therapy (SST) is an experimental therapy that aims to utilize neural plasticity mechanisms to aid in the recovery of somatosensory function after stroke or cognitive ageing. Stroke and cognitive ageing are well known sources of cognitive loss, the former by neuronal death, the later by weakening of neural connections.Interoceptor: An interoceptor is a sensory receptor that detects stimulus within the body. Examples of stimuli that would be detected by interoceptors include blood pressureCampbell, Neil A.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCyclobenzaprinePolysubstance dependence: A person with polysubstance dependence is psychologically addicted to being in an intoxicated state without a preference for one particular substance. Although any combination of three drugs can be used, studies have shown that alcohol is commonly used with another substance.Hyperpathia: Hyperpathia is a clinical symptom of certain neurological disorders wherein nociceptive stimuli evoke exaggerated levels of pain. This should not be confused with allodynia, where normally non-painful stimuli evoke pain.Microvascular decompression: Microvascular decompression (MVD), also known as the Jannetta procedure,http://neurosurgery.ucsf.DicycloverineNeurotmesis: Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage. It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Freund: __NOTOC__Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Lidocaine: lignocaine