CholesterolAtherosclerosisYWTD domain of low-density lipoprotein receptor: The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. LDLR binds cholesterol-carrying LDL, associates with clathrin-coated pits, and is internalized into acidic endosomes where it separates from its ligand.Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase: Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism .It is a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which belongs to the oxidoreductase class, and converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol, the first and rate limiting step in bile acid synthesis.Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.TriglycerideSterol carrier protein: A:437-540 A:437-540 A:628-731Apolipoprotein O: Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family.Vitellogenin lipid transport domain: A:18-588HMG-CoA reductase: HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, ; NADPH-dependent, ) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol.Bile acid malabsorptionLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIPlant stanols: Plant stanols are like cholesterol but for plants. They are commonly found in plant related foods.Bile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Apolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Steglich esterification: The Steglich esterification is a variation of an esterfication with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling reagent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as a catalyst. The reaction was first described by Wolfgang Steglich in 1978.PhospholipidPlant stanol ester: Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events.Animal fatLovastatinAcyltransferaseInclusion compound: thumbnail|200px|Example of an inclusion complex consisting of a p-xylylenediammonium bound within a [[cucurbituril reported by Freeman in Acta. Crystallogr.StatinEgg lecithinCholestyramineTransporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.HMG-CoALomitapideDesmosterolMediated transportFoam party: A foam party is a social event in which participants dance to music on a dance floor covered in several feet of suds or bubbles dispensed from a foam machine.XimelagatranNCEH1: Neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH) also known as arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1) or KIAA1363 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NCEH1 gene.Hypolipidemic agent: Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. They are called lipid-lowering drugs.Lipid microdomain: Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains. These phase separations can be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, ionic strength or by the addition of divalent cations or proteins.Sphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphocholine and ceramide, or a phosphoethanolamine head group; therefore, sphingomyelins can also be classified as sphingophospholipids.DrospirenoneLanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase: ==Introduction==List of important publications in medicine: The definitive bibliographic source of books and articles demonstrating the history of medicine and identifying the first publications in the field is "Garrison and Morton". (Morton, Leslie T.Heptadecanoic acidQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Cholesterol embolismBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Membrane lipidsMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. P450scc is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Cell membranePravastatinScavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein domain: In molecular biology, the protein domain SRCR is short for Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. They are found solely in eukaryotes.Coulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLiposomeStigmasterolEnt-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase: Ent-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase (, ent-cassadiene C11alpha-hydroxylase, CYP76M7) is an enzyme with system name ent-cassa-12,15-diene,NADPH:oxygen 11-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionNew Zealand rabbit