HyperchloremiaChloride channel: C:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, F:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438The Vinyl Institute: The Vinyl Institute (VI) is a U.S.Halotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.Chlorinated polyvinyl chlorideSarett oxidationZinc ammonium chloride: Zinc ammonium chloride, also known as diammonium tetrachlorozincate(2-) (IUPAC name), is a zinc salt commonly used as a flux in the process of hot-dip galvanizing. The CAS registry number is 14639-97-5.Lithium chlorideRoccal-D: Roccal-D is a disinfectant manufactured by Pfizer that is used in many animal care facilities and some biological laboratories. It is effective against bacteria including Mycoplasma, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, E.Caesium cadmium chlorideSodium bromideDivinylbenzeneΔF508: ΔF508 (delta-F508, full name CFTRΔF508 or F508del-CFTR; rs113993960) is a specific mutation within the gene for a protein called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutation is a deletion of the three nucleotides that comprise the codon for phenylalanine (F) at position 508.Non-coordinating anion: Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is 'weakly coordinating anion'. Non-coordinating anions are useful in studying the reactivity of electrophilic cations.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Small multidrug resistance protein: B:2-94 A:2-94Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.BicarbonateTrans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.ATC code N01: ==N01A Anesthetics, general==Methyl halide transferase: Methyl halide transferase (, MCT, methyl chloride transferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:halide/bisulfide methyltransferase, AtHOL1, AtHOL2, AtHOL3, HMT, S-adenosyl-L-methionine: halide ion methyltransferase, SAM:halide ion methyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosylmethionine:iodide methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Electrical conductivity meterBumetanideAcetyl tributyl citrate: Acetyl tributyl citrate is valued as a biodegradable plasticizer of low toxicity, found in nail polish and other cosmetics.Salting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.TriiodideCystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.Biocidal Products DirectiveTetramethylammonium chlorideCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.PolyelectrolyteMediated transportSweat test: The sweat test measures the concentration of chloride that is excreted in sweat. It is used to screen for cystic fibrosis (CF).Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.MyotoniaFerroelectric polymers: Ferroelectric Polymers"Ferroelectric Properties of Vinylidene Fluoride Copolymers," by T. Furukawa, in Phase Transitions, Vol.Cobalt(II) hydroxideVinylidene group: In chemistry, vinylidenes are compounds with the functional group C=CH2. An example is 1,1-dichloroethene (CCl2=CH2) commonly called vinylidene chloride.Fish gill: Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues which consist of cloth and fabric structures called filaments.Periodic current reversalTranscellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Potassium-aggravated myotonia: Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a rare genetic disorder that affects skeletal muscle. Beginning in childhood or adolescence, people with this condition experience bouts of sustained muscle tensing (myotonia) that prevent muscles from relaxing normally.Metabolic alkalosisSerum chloride: Chloride is an anion in the human body needed for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy). It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance.Halorhodopsin: Halorhodopsin is a light-gated ion pump, specific for chloride ions, found in archaea, known as halobacteria. It is a seven-transmembrane protein of the retinylidene protein family, homologous to the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, and similar in tertiary structure (but not primary sequence structure) to vertebrate rhodopsins, the pigments that sense light in the retina.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTransparent conducting film: Transparent conducting films (TCFs) are optically transparent and electrically conductive in thin layers. They are an important component of a number of electronic devices including liquid-crystal displays, OLEDs, touchscreens and photovoltaics.Stratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.GuanidineStretch-activated ion channel: Stretch-activated or stretch-gated ion channels are ion channels which open their pores in response to mechanical deformation of a neuron's plasma membrane. Also see mechanosensitive ion channels and mechanosensitive channels, with which they may be synonymous.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:New Zealand rabbitAcid dye: An acid dye is a dye which is a salt of a sulfuric, carboxylic or phenolic organic acid. The salts are often sodium or ammonium salts.Bufo: Bufo is a large genus of about 150 species of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae. Bufo is a Latin word for toad.PivagabineColes PhillipsElectroneutral cation-Cl: In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins. This family includes the products of the Human genes: SLC12A1, SLC12A1, SLC12A2, SLC12A3, SLC12A4, SLC12A5, SLC12A6, SLC12A7, SLC12A8 and SLC12A9.Mercury(II) reductase: Mercury(II) reductase (), commonly known as MerA, is an oxidoreductase enzyme and flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0. Mercury(II) reductase is found in the cytoplasm of many eubacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic environments and the serves the purpose of converting toxic mercury ions into its relatively inert elemental form.Cell membraneKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.MTT assayLithium (medication)Zinc chloride hydroxide monohydratePotassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate: Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate is a potassium salt with chemical formula KC4HO4 or K+·HC4O4−, often abbreviated as KHadc. It is often called potassium hydrogen acetylenedicarboxylate or monopotassium acetylenedicarboxylate.Acid–base reaction: An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several theoretical frameworks provide alternative conceptions of the reaction mechanisms and their application in solving related problems.HemangiosarcomaPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Hypochlorous acidBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.