Chicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.Immunosurgery: Immunosurgery is a method of removing an external cell layer of an object. Immunosurgery is to expose the specimen to a solution containing antibodies against the object, remove that solution and subsequently expose the object to complement.Mesenchyme: Mesenchyme is a type of tissue characterized by loosely associated cells that lack polarity and are surrounded by a large extracellular matrix. Mesenchymal cells are able to develop into the tissues of the lymphatic and circulatory systems, as well as connective tissues throughout the body, such as bone and cartilage.Chorion (egg): The chorion is the outermost membrane around the embryo in mammals, birds and reptiles. It develops from an outer fold on the surface of the yolk sac, which lies outside the vitteline envelope and is developed by the follicle cells while the egg is in the ovary.Chorioallantoic membrane: The chorioallantoic membrane — also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM — is a vascular membrane found in eggs of some amniotes, such as birds and reptiles. It is formed by the fusion of the mesodermal layers of two developmental structures: the allantois and the chorion.Multiple patterning: Multiple patterning (or multi-patterning) is a class of technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs), developed for photolithography to enhance the feature density. The simplest case of multiple patterning is double patterning, where a conventional lithography process is enhanced to produce double the expected number of features.Somitogenesis: Somitogenesis is the process by which somites form. Somites are bilaterally paired blocks of mesoderm that form along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing embryo in segmented animals.Old World quail: Old World quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Stomochord: The stomochord is a flexible, hollow tube found in hemichordates. Stomochords arise in embryonic development as an outpocketing from the roof of the embryonic gut anterior to the pharynx.Truncal neural crest: The truncal neural crest or trunk neural crest is a form of neural crest.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Iroquois homeobox factor: Iroquois homeobox factors are a family of homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in many developmental processes.LathyrismRhombomere: In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. The rhombomeres appear as a series of slightly constricted swellings in the neural tube, caudal to the cephalic flexure.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingColes PhillipsMorphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Chimera (EST): In genetics, a chimera is a single cDNA sequence originating from two transcripts. It is usually considered to be a contaminant in transcript and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Maternal to zygotic transition: Maternal to zygotic transition (MZT) is the stage in embryonic development during which development comes under the exclusive control of the zygotic genome. This requires both zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and degradation of maternal products.Achy Breaky HeartPituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Limb bud: The limb bud is a structure formed early in limb development. As a result of interactions between the ectoderm and underlying mesoderm, formation occurs roughly around the fourth week of development Gilbert, Scott F.Dullard protein: Dullard is a member of DXDX(T/V) phosphatase family, and was shown in 2002 to be a potential regulator of neural tube development in Xenopus.Satow R, Chan TC, Asashima M (2002) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295:85-91Field emission probesOvarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.Wing walkingYolk sac: The yolk sac is a membranous [attached to an embryo], formed by cells of the [[hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk. This is alternatively called the umbilical vesicle by the Terminologia Embryologica (TE), though yolk sac is far more widely used.FGF15/19: FGF15/19 refers to two orthologous fibroblast growth factors which share 50% aminoacid identity and have similar functions.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Hieronymus Fabricius: Hieronymus Fabricius or Girolamo Fabrizio or by his Latin name Fabricus ab Aquapendente also Girolamo Fabrizi d'Acquapendente (1537–1619) was a pioneering anatomist and surgeon known in medical science as "The Father of Embryology."Gene electrotransfer: Gene electrotransfer is a versatile biotechnology technique that enables the transfer of genetic material into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane.Christoph MangoldPhilip Mallory: Philip Rogers Mallory (1885-1975) was an American businessman and the founder of the company that is now known as Duracell International. Rather than making a career in his family's shipping business, he founded his own manufacturing company, the P.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.A. Hari ReddiOocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Paramesonephric duct: Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, and the upper one-third of the vagina; in the male, they are lost.Hes3 signaling axis: The STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling axis is a specific type of intracellular signaling pathway that regulates several fundamental properties of cells.Haptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Dolly Parton singles discography: The singles discography of American country singer Dolly Parton includes 106 singles and 45 music videos.AminopropionitrileCollagenEggshell: An eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats. Bird eggshells contain calcium carbonate and dissolve in various acids, including the vinegar used in cooking.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Dermal fibroblast: Dermal fibroblasts are cells within the dermis layer of skin which are responsible for generating connective tissue and allowing the skin to recover from injury. Using organelles (particularly the rough endoplasmic reticulum), dermal fibroblasts generate and maintain the connective tissue which unites separate cell layers.Homeotic gene: Homeotic genes are genes which regulate the development of anatomical structures in various organisms such as insects, mammals, and plants. This regulation is done via the programming of various transcription factors by the homeotic genes, and these factors affect genes through regulatory genetic pathways.MinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.
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