Low-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Immunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Freund: __NOTOC__Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Lipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).DoxorubicinBreast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Clinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Neoadjuvant therapyPharmaceutic adjuvant: In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy or potency of other drugs when given at the same time.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Methotrexate-induced papular eruption: Methotrexate-induced papular eruption appears in patients being treated with methotrexate, such as those with rheumatic disease, presenting with erythematous indurated papules, usually located on the proximal extremities.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.ClopidogrelCarboplatinVinorelbineBreast cancer chemotherapyAnthracycline: Anthracyclines (or anthracycline antibiotics) are a class of drugs (CCNS or cell-cycle non-specific)Trevor A, Katzung B, Masters S. Pharmacology: Examination and Board Review.CAPOX: CAPOX (also called XELOX) is a chemotherapy regimen consisting of capecitabine (trade name Xeloda) combined with oxaliplatin.Capecitabine Combined with Oxaliplatin (CapOx) in Clinical Practice: How Significant is Peripheral Neuropathy?TezacitabineAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLymphovascular invasionPemetrexedCommunity-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Isolated hepatic perfusion: Isolated hepatic perfusion is a procedure in which a catheter is placed into the artery that provides blood to the liver; another catheter is placed into the vein that takes blood away from the liver. This temporarily separates the liver's blood supply from blood circulating throughout the rest of the body and allows high doses of anticancer drugs to be directed to the liver only.PanitumumabBob ChampionOvarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.CytarabineCyclic neutropeniaAluminium hydroxide oxide: (additive)DacarbazineFake vomit: Fake vomit is a flat rubber or plastic disc with indentations and protrusions designed to look like mucus or vomit. It is a practical joke often used by pranksters to disgust victims.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Nausea (band): Nausea was an American crust punk band from New York City in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, active from 1985-1992. Nausea is usually cited as being integral in the rise of American crust punk, a fusion of anarcho-punk and thrash metal styles.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Neurooncology: Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.Working Formulation: The Working formulation is an obsolete classification of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, first proposed in 1982. It has since been replaced by other lymphoma classifications, the latest published by the WHO in 2008, but is still used by cancer agencies for compilation of lymphoma statistics.TegafurBone tumorNodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphomaBevacizumabNigro protocol: Nigro protocol is the pre-operative use of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin and medical radiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal of less than 5 cm, followed by surgical excision if necessary. Specifically, in the protocol, the patient receives 30 Gy of radiation over a three-week period, as well as continuous administration of fluorouracil for the first four days and on days 29-32, with the mitomycin administered on the first day of treatment.Germ cell tumorPegfilgrastimConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.OsteosarcomaMetastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).IrinotecanExternal beam radiotherapyDichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II)MastectomyHormone receptor positive breast tumor: A hormone-receptor-positive tumor is a tumor which consists of cells that express receptors for certain hormones. The term most commonly refers to estrogen receptor positive tumors (i.ImmunizationAnaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.MelphalanTrastuzumabOncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay