Discovery and development of cephalosporins: Cephalosporins are a broad class of bactericidal antibiotics that include the β-lactam ring and share a structural similarity and mechanism of action with other β-lactam antibiotics (e.g.Beta-lactamaseBacitracinCefotaximeCefalexinCefiximeExtended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.CeftriaxoneCefteramExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.CefazolinKlebsiella pneumoniaAztreonamEwingella americana: Ewingella americana is a Gram-negative rod, and the only species in the genus Ewingella. It was first identified and characterized in 1983.CefoxitinMultidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Cephamycin: Cephamycins are a group of beta-lactam antibiotics. They are very similar to cephalosporins, and the cephamycins are sometimes classified as cephalosporins.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Klebsiella terrigena: Klebsiella terrigena is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the genus Klebsiella. It has primarily been isolated from soil and water samples, but rarely from humans.CefaclorCefoperazoneCarbapenem: Carbapenems are antibiotics used for the treatment of infections known or suspected to be caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Their use is primarily in people who are hospitalized.CefadroxilOxacephem: An oxacephem is a molecule similar to a cephem, but with oxygen substituted for the sulfur. They are synthetic compounds not seen in nature.AmpicillinList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Cloaca (Capri): The Cloaca is an archaeological site on the island of Capri, Italy. It was part of a sewage system built in Roman times.CefotetanBenzylpenicillinExternal bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.Superadditive developer: Photographic developer solutions may contain more than one developing agents, such as Metol and hydroquinone, or Phenidone and hydroquinone. This is because they work together to a synergistic effect, called superadditive development.CefuroximeClavulanic acidInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.LactamCloxacillinGonorrhea: Clap}}Ethyl groupNeisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.TigemonamC4H7N3O3Citrobacter amalonaticus: Citrobacter amalonaticus is a Gram-negative species of bacteria, a known human pathogen: it can cause neonatal meningitis and potentially gastroenteritis. It has been known to infect the urinary tract.PanipenemProteus vulgaris: Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.Mirabilis: Mirabilis is a Latin adjective meaning "amazing, wondrous, remarkable", and is used to refer to:Citrobacter freundii: Citrobacter freundii is a species of facultative anaerobic. Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.PropicillinPiperacillinProvidencia stuartii: Providencia stuartii (commonly P. stuartii), is a Gram negative bacterium that is commonly found in soil, water, and sewage.KasugamycinGyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Quellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.ClinafloxacinBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Pulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Sarcina (genus): Sarcina is a genus of Gram-positive cocci bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. A synthesizer of microbial cellulose, they have a cuboidal cell arrangement.