EnterolithCalculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Renal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Bladder stoneExtracorporeal shock wave lithotripsyGordon Hobday: Sir Gordon Ivan Hobday (1 February 1916 - 27 May 2015) was a British scientist who worked on penicillin with Alexander Fleming and is noted for his role as director of the Boots research team that developed ibuprofen. He later became chairman of Boots.UreteroscopyPercutaneous nephrostomySialoendoscopy: Sialoendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of sialadenitis and other conditions of the salivary glands. During sialoendoscopy a small camera is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth.Freddy Rides Again: Freddy Rides Again (1951) is the 18th book in the humorous children’s series Freddy the Pig written by American author Walter R. Brooks and illustrated by Kurt Wiese.UrolithiasisHerniaria hirsuta: Herniaria hirsuta is a species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common name hairy rupturewort. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, and it is known on other continents, including North America, as an introduced species.Gas pyelogram: A Gas pyelogram is a pyelogram in which the kidneys, renal pelvis and ureters are filled with gas, and have a radiolucent appearance. This gas is produced by some gas producing micro organisms which infect most upper parts of urinary system.Gallstone: ), cholelithiasisDrug reference standard: A drug reference standard is a standardized substance which is used as a measurement base for similar substances. Where the exact active substances of a new drug are not known, a reference standard provides a calibrated level of biological effects against which new preparations of the drug can be compared.Magnesium phosphate: Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in three forms:International Cystinuria Foundation: The International Cystinuria Foundation (ICF) is a Colorado based nonprofit organization that provides educational resources to individuals affected by cystinuria. Its mission is to strengthen, educate, and further the general well being of the cystinuric community.Octacalcium phosphateHorse colic: Colic in horses is defined as abdominal pain, but it is a clinical sign rather than a diagnosis. The term colic can encompass all forms of gastrointestinal conditions which cause pain as well as other causes of abdominal pain not involving the gastrointestinal tract.Ethylene glycol poisoningMirizzi's syndromeDepartment of Urology, University of Virginia: {{Infobox universityUrologic disease: Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.Diverticulum: A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body. Depending upon which layers of the structure are involved, they are described as being either true or false.HydronephrosisHolmium(III) oxideSimulated body fluid: A simulated body fluid (SBF) is a solution with an ion concentration close to that of human blood plasma, kept under mild conditions of pH and identical physiological temperature. SBF was first introduced by Kokubo et al.Hepatolithiasis: Hepatolithiasis is the presence of gallstones in the biliary ducts of the liver. Treatment is usually surgical.Cystic duct: The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct. It usually lies next to the cystic artery.Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis: Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) is a peculiar aspect of osteomyelitis characterized by prevalent histiocytic infiltrate and foamy macrophage clustering.Rosai J(2004).Orchialgia: Orchialgia is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than 3 months.Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographySodium oxalate: http://chem.sis.Acetic oxalic anhydrideUrinary calcium: Urinary calcium is calcium in the urine. It is termed -calcuria or -calciuria as a suffix.Triazine: A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The parent molecules' molecular formula is 333.Allantois: Allantois (; plural allantoides or allantoises) is a sac-like structure that forms part of a developing amniote's conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues). It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste.ATC code M04: ==M04A Antigout preparations==Desquamative gingivitisImad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi: Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi was a mid-16th-century Persian physician from Shiraz, Iran.UreteritisHyperoxaluriaHexvix: Hexvix is an optical imaging agent developed by the Norwegian pharmaceutical company Photocure ASA. Hexvix is designed to enhance detection of bladder cancer, in particular carcinoma in situ (CIS), it reveals lesions that may not be seen with standard white light cystoscopy.EndoscopyScrotal ligament: The scrotal ligament is actually the remnant of gubernaculum in a fetus. This ligament secures the testis to the most inferior portion of the scrotum, tethering it in place and limiting the degree to which the testis can move within the scrotum.NephrocalcinosisSociety of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons: United StatesUrethrostomy: Urethrostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a permanent opening in the urethra, commonly to remove obstructions to urine flow. The procedure is most often performed in male cats, where the opening is made in the perineum.Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.Maximilian NitzeDysuriaPotassium citrateRepresentativeness heuristic: The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty. It is one of a group of heuristics (simple rules governing judgment or decision-making) proposed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s.Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate: Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate is a potassium salt with chemical formula KC4HO4 or K+·HC4O4−, often abbreviated as KHadc. It is often called potassium hydrogen acetylenedicarboxylate or monopotassium acetylenedicarboxylate.Thin basement membrane diseaseIron metallic discoloration: Iron metallic discoloration occurred more frequently in the past when soluble iron compounds were used in the treatment of allergic contact and other dermatitis, and in eroded areas iron was sometimes deposited in the skin, like a tattoo .James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).AnuriaMitrofanoff principle: In urology, the Mitrofanoff principle is the creation of a passageway for urine or enema fluid that, by its (surgical) construction, has a valve mechanism to allow continence.Fenclozic acidAbdominal ultrasonographyUrethral syndromeDiode-pumped solid-state laser: Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.Parchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.UrinalysisTrisodium citrateTwo-dimensional infrared spectroscopyGlitter cell: Glitter cells are neutrophils that are found in the urine, most commonly associated with urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. They derive their name from their appearance when viewed on a wet mount preparation under a microscope; the granules within their cytoplasm can be seen moving, giving them a "glittering appearance.Spiral computed tomography: Spiral computed tomography is a computed tomographyAvinash C. Kak and Malcolm Slaney (2001).Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.List of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Amorphous calcium carbonate: Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is the amorphous and least stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. ACC is monohydrate and is so unstable under normal conditions that aside from several specialized organisms it is not found naturally.