Hydraulic fracturing proppants: A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. It is added to a frac'ing fluid which may vary in composition depending on the type of fracturing used, and can be gel, foam or slickwater–based.Sharps containerSaliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).Biocell Center: Biocell Center is an international company specializing in the cryopreservation and private banking of amniotic fluid stem cells. The company is headquartered in Italy with several international locations and is involved with numerous partnerships and research studies of amniotic fluid stem cells,.Exosome (vesicle): Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all biological fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures. The reported diameter of exosomes is between 30 and 100 nm, which is larger than LDL, but much smaller than for example, red blood cells.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: A laboratory technique used to evaluate the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is similar to immunodiffusion, but with the addition of an applied electrical field across the diffusion medium, usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease: The Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering inherited metabolic disorders. It was established in 1978 and is the official journal of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism.Parapneumonic effusionOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Universal precautions: Universal precautions refers to the practice, in medicine, of avoiding contact with patients' bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as medical gloves, goggles, and face shields. The practice was introduced in 1985–88.Sarcina (genus): Sarcina is a genus of Gram-positive cocci bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. A synthesizer of microbial cellulose, they have a cuboidal cell arrangement.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Transudate: Transudate is extravascular fluid with low protein content and a low specific gravity (< 1.012).Liquid nitrogen vehicle: A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank. Traditional nitrogen engine designs work by heating the liquid nitrogen in a heat exchanger, extracting heat from the ambient air and using the resulting pressurized gas to operate a piston or rotary motor.Semen quality: Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Chronic cellular dehydrationOsmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Fredric Rieders: Fredric Rieders (July 9, 1922 – November 26, 2005) was an internationally renowned forensic toxicologist. He was born in Vienna, Austria.Lumpers and splitters: Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.Medical glove: Medical gloves are disposable gloves used during medical examinations and procedures that help prevent contamination between caregivers and patients. Medical gloves are made of different polymers including latex, nitrile rubber, vinyl and neoprene; they come unpowdered, or powdered with cornstarch to lubricate the gloves, making them easier to put on the hands.HypernatremiaBlood proteins: Plasma proteins, also termed serum proteins or blood proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and minerals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity and functioning of the immune system.AlachrymaTissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.CholineImmunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.UrinalysisDeath of Ludwig van Beethoven: The death of Ludwig van Beethoven on 26 March 1827 followed a prolonged illness. It was witnessed by his sister-in-law and by his close friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner, who provided a vivid description of the event.Filter fluorometer: A filter fluorometer is a type of fluorometer that may be employed in fluorescence spectroscopy.Plant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Electron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Centrifuge: A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a potentially strong force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward). The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction.Meningitis Vaccine ProjectGas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbThermal cyclerSolubility: Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Latex fixation test: The latex agglutination method is used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests are based on and utilize the patient's antigen-antibody immune response.Metabolomics: Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingReplica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.
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