Blood–brain barrier: The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions with an extremely high electrical resistivity of at least 0.John Evans (actor): John Evans (1693?–1734?Tight junction: Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens), are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier to fluid. It is a type of junctional complex present only in vertebrates.CapillaryTariquidarEndothelial progenitor cell: Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to multiple different cell types that play roles in the regeneration of the endothelial lining of blood vessels. Despite the history and controversy, the EPC in all its forms remains a promising target of regenerative medicine research.Mediated transportATC code N07: ==N07A Parasympathomimetics==Astrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.LoperamideCerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.Neural drug delivery systems: Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits. Drug delivery systems allow the rate of growth factor release to be regulated over time, which is critical for creating an environment more closely representative of in vivo development environments.Neurooncology: Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.Mannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Endothelial activation: Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. It is most characterized by an increase in interactions with white blood cells (leukocytes), and it is associated with the early states of atherosclerosis and sepsis, among others.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Blood–ocular barrier: The blood–ocular barrier is a barrier created by endothelium of capillaries of the retina and iris, ciliary epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium. It is a physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself, and stops many substances including drugs from traveling across it.Penumbra (medicine): In pathology and anatomy the penumbra is the area surrounding an ischemic event such thrombotic or embolic stroke. Immediately following the event, blood flow and therefore oxygen transport is reduced locally, leading to hypoxia of the cells near the location of the original insult.Microbubbles: Microbubbles are bubbles smaller than one millimetre in diameter, but larger than one micrometre. They have widespread application in industry, life science, and medicine.Choroid plexus cystPeptaibol: Peptaibols are biologically active peptides containing between seven and twenty amino acid residues, some of which are non-proteinogenic amino acids. In particular, they contain α-aminoisobutyric acid along with other unusual aminoacids such as ethylnorvaline, isovaline and hydroxyproline; the N-terminus is acetylated, and the C-terminal amino acid is hydroxylated to an acid alcohol.Extravasation (intravenous): Extravasation is the accidental administration of intravenously (IV) infused medications into the extravascular space/tissue around infusion sites, either by leakage (e.g.GadodiamideFluoresceinAcridine carboxamide: Acridine carboxamide is an chemotherapy agent that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.Cell disruption: Cell disruption is a method or process for releasing biological molecules from inside a cell.Carbon-12: Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.HyperintensityTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingIntercellular cleft: An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions may be present. Most notably, intercellular clefts are found between epithelial cells and the endothelium of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, also helping to form the blood-nerve barrier surrounding nerves.Jakob SegalQuinaprilBiotinylated dextran amine: Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) are organic compounds used as anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers. They can be used for labeling the source as well as the point of termination of neural connections and therefore to study neural pathways.CSF glucose: (MCnc), (SCnc)PericytePia mater: Pia mater ( or Entry "pia mater" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.Trandolapril/verapamilNeuroprotection: Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function. In the case of an ongoing insult (a neurodegenerative insult) the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Transporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.CCL20: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils.Central nervous system disease: A central nervous system disease can affect either the spinal cord (myelopathy) or brain (encephalopathy), both of which are part of the central nervous system.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Brain healing: Brain healing is the process that occurs after the brain has been damaged. If an individual survives brain damage, the brain has a remarkable ability to adapt.Schering AGMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==List of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.Brain injury: A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions.List of multiple sclerosis organizations: List of Multiple Sclerosis Organizations in different countries around the worldAmproliumSenile plaquesSucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Combes quinoline synthesis: The Combes quinoline synthesis is a chemical reaction, which was first reported by Combes in 1888. It involves the condensation of unsubstituted anilines (1) with β-diketones (2) to form substituted quinolines (4) after an acid-catalyzed ring closure of an intermediate Schiff base (3).Transcellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a worldwide project that provides reliable clinical data for the research of pathology principle, prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple research groups contribute their findings of the biological markers to the understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain.Psychogenic non-epileptic seizuresCerebral hemorrhageForeign branding: Foreign branding is an advertising and marketing term describing the implied cachet or superiority of products and services with foreign or foreign-sounding names.
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