Indian blood group system: The Indian blood group system (In) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that is expressed on the surface of blood cells. It is named so because 4% of the population in India possess it.ABO blood group system: The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. Found on platelets, epithelium, and cells other than erythrocytes, AB antigens (as with other serotypes) can also cause an adverse immune response to organ transplantation.RHD (gene): Rh blood group, D antigen also known as Rh polypeptide 1 (RhPI) or cluster of differentiation 240D (CD240D) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHD gene.Percy Kidd: Percy Marmaduke Kidd (13 February 1851 — 21 January 1942) was an English doctor. He was born in Blackheath and died in Chalfont St.Duffy antigen system: Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene.MNS antigen system: The MNS antigen system is a human blood group system based upon two genes (glycophorin A and glycophorin B) on chromosome 4. There are currently 46 antigens in the system,Daniels G, Flegel WA, Fletcher A, et al.Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction: An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR) is a type of transfusion reaction that is associated with hemolysis.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Cross-matchingGlycophorin C: Glycophorin C (GYPC; CD236/CD236R; glycoprotein beta; glycoconnectin; PAS-2') plays a functionally important role in maintaining erythrocyte shape and regulating membrane material properties, possibly through its interaction with protein 4.1.P antigen system: P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon the A4GALT and B3GALNT1 genes on chromosome 22.Erythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.Lutheran Hospital of Indiana: The Lutheran Hospital of Indiana, commonly known as Lutheran Hospital, is a medical facility in Fort Wayne, Indiana.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5IsoantibodiesNorovirus: Norovirus, sometimes known as the winter vomiting bug in the UK, is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Monoclonal antibody therapyIsoantigen: An isoantigen is a type of antigen which is present only in subsets of a species.FucoseN-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Coles PhillipsGlycosphingolipidMelezitoseSulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol: Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols, abbreviated SQDG, are a class of sulfur-containing but phosphorus-free lipids (sulfolipids) found in many photosynthetic organisms.Haemagglutination activity domain: In molecular biology, the haemagglutination activity domain is a conserved protein domain found near the N terminus of a number of large, repetitive bacterial proteins, including many proteins of over 2500 amino acids. A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding protein, etc.Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase: Glucosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (, lactosylceramide synthase, uridine diphosphate-galactose:glucosyl ceramide beta 1-4 galactosyltransferase, UDP-Gal:glucosylceramide beta1->4galactosyltransferase, GalT-2, UDP-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-alpha-D-galactose:beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionN-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide b-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase: N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (, uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-acetylneuraminyl(alpha2->3)galactosyl(beta1->4)glucosyl beta1->4-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-alpha-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetylneuraminyl-(2->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSaliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).Amino sugarPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Trimeric autotransporter adhesin: In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Saf pilin N-terminal extension: In molecular biology, the protein domain, Saf pilin N-terminal extension refers to a domain only found in bacteria, more specifically, in gram-negative bacteria. Pili need to be formed by bacteria, as they are a method of adhering to the host organism which helps them infect the host cell.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.HLA B7-DR15-DQ6Oncotype DX Colon Cancer AssayPrimary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Norwalk Hospital: Norwalk Hospital is a not-for-profit, acute care community teaching hospital in the Spring Hill section of Norwalk, Connecticut. The hospital serves a population of 250,000 in lower Fairfield County, Connecticut.Stratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.Gastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.RhamnoseFlow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.CD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Gene polymorphismThermal cyclerCarcinoembryonic antigen: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.SchindlerBladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Glycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Viral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Heterophile antigen: Heterophile antigens:Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.