BicucullinePivagabineOrg 20599Strychnine poisoningPicrotoxinGABAA-rho receptor: The GABAA-rho receptor (previously known as the GABAC receptor) is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits. GABAA receptors including those of the ρ-subclass are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.FasoracetamMethylpyridiniumHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Ion transport number: Ion transport number, also called the transference number, is the fraction of the total current carried in an electrolyte by a given ion. Differences in transport number arise from differences in electrical mobility.Glycine (plant): Glycine is a genus in the bean family Fabaceae. The best known species is the soybean (Glycine max).Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.EndralazineVentricular action potentialPeriodic current reversalOrg 21465: Org 21465 is a synthetic neuroactive steroid, with sedative effects resulting from its action as a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator. It is similar to related drugs such as Org 20599, and was similarly developed as an improved alternative to other sedative steroids such as althesin and allopregnanolone, which despite its superior properties in some respects has not proved to offer enough advantages to be accepted into clinical use.Psychogenic non-epileptic seizuresCrotonyl-CoANipecotic acid: Nipecotic acid is a GABA reuptake inhibitor used in scientific research.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Glycine receptorPatch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.LesogaberanPlace cellNeuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Kynurenic acidReversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.PentylenetetrazolNBQXFlurazepamCats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.NS-2710: NS-2710 (LS-193,970) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, developed by the small pharmaceutical company Neurosearch. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.Excitotoxicity: Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances. This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor are overactivated by glutamatergic storm.Barbiturate dependenceNeuroactive steroid: Neuroactive steroids, also known as neurosteroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors. The term neurosteroid was coined by the French physiologist Étienne-Émile Baulieu and refers to steroids synthesized in the brain.ParvalbuminHyperchloremiaCGP-37849Glutamate receptorKainic acidAnother Grey Area: Another Grey Area is a 1982 album by Graham Parker and was released on the Arista Records label. It was produced by Jack Douglas and Graham Parker.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Central tegmental tract: The central tegmental tractKamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM. Diffusion tensor tractography of the somatosensory system in the human brainstem: initial findings using high isotropic spatial resolution at 3.RentiaprilFlunitrazepamSolitary nucleus: In the human brain, the solitary nucleus (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS) is a series of nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. Through the center of the NTS runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, that [the NTS.TaurineSacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Drug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Plateau potentials: Plateau potentials, caused by persistent inward currents (PICs), are a type of electrical behaviour seen by cells in the spinal cord. They are of particular importance to spinal motor systems.Protective index: The protective index is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity. Quantitatively, it is the ratio given by the toxic dose divided by the therapeutic dose.Lollipop darter: The lollipop darter (Etheostoma neopterum) is a species of darter endemic to the eastern United States. Lollipop darters are approximately long.Epilepsy Research UK: Epilepsy Research UK is a British medical research charity dedicated to curing epilepsy.Horseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.DecerebrationHypoglossal trigone: In the upper part of the medulla oblongata, the hypoglossal nucleus approaches the rhomboid fossa, where it lies close to the middle line, under an eminence named the hypoglossal trigone.Neurotransmitter: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as in a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.Turtle farming: Turtle farming is the practice of raising turtles and tortoises of various species commercially. Raised animals are sold for use as gourmet food, traditional medicine ingredients, or as pets.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus: The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is involved in feeding, drinking, body-weight regulation and circadian activity.Lactation: Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. The process can occur with almost all post-pregnancy female mammals, although it predates mammals.
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