Lentiform nucleus: The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. It is a large, cone-shaped mass of gray matter just lateral to the internal capsule.Basal ganglia diseaseVentral pallidum: The ventral pallidum is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain. It is an output nucleus whose fibres project to thalamic nuclei, such as the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral nucleus, and the medial dorsal nucleus.Cervical ganglia: The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. These emerging postganglionic nerves synapse with preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord.Lipohyalinosis: Lipohyalinosis is a small-vessel disease in the brain. Originally defined by Fisher as 'segmental arteriolar wall disorganisation', it is characterised by vessel wall thickening and a resultant reduction in luminal diameter.Ganglion cellStellate ganglion: The stellate ganglion (or cervicothoracic ganglion) is a sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion, which exists in 80% of cases. Stellate ganglion is located at the level of C7 (7th cervical vertebrae), anterior to the transverse process of C7, superior to the neck of the first rib, and just below the subclavian artery.HyperintensityHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Frontostriatal circuit: Frontostriatal circuits are neural pathways that connect frontal lobe regions with the basal ganglia (striatum) that mediate motor, cognitive, and behavioural functions within the brain. They receive inputs from dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic cell groups that modulate information processing.Causes of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).Rolf Hassler: Rolf Hassler (1914-1984) was a German pathologist who made important discoveries on the pathophisiology and treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).Spiral pumpDystoniaParoxysmal dyskinesia: The paroxysmal dyskinesias (PD) are a group of movement disorders characterized by attacks of hyperkinesia with intact consciousness.Blueprints Neurolgy, 2nd ed.The Movement Disorder SocietyVentricular action potentialDopamine receptorCapuchin Friary, Crest: The Capuchin Friary in Crest in Drôme, France, is a house of Capuchin friars.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time. It can occur in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) due to a long exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT).Yoshiyuki TominoNeurostimulationHypokinesia: Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.http://serendip.Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.William Finch (merchant): William Finch (died 1613) was an English merchant.Inferior cerebellar peduncle: The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle (restiform body), a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Song control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.HemiballismusVoluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.TalipexoleCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Tic Talk: Living with Tourette Syndrome: Tic Talk: Living with Tourette Syndrome is a book written by Dylan Peters, a 9-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome (TS). In this personal narrative, Peters gives a timeline of events from his TS diagnosis to when he tells his friends and classmates he has TS.Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a form of dyskinesia associated with levodopa used to treat Parkinson's disease. It often involves hyperkinetic movements, including chorea, dystonia, and athetosis.Nephtheis fascicularisPeriodic current reversalMiddle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Optic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.PivagabineGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Silence of the Songbirds: Silence of the Songbirds (ISBN 978-0-8027-1609-5) is a book by bird lover and scientist Bridget Stutchbury about the rapid decline and loss of many species of songbirds. Some major threats covered include pesticides, sun-grown coffee, city lights, cowbirds, and global warming.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCerebral hemorrhageSilent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).HuntingtonNeuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.