Low back painCancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Chronic painPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Multifidus muscle: The multifidus (multifidus spinae : pl. multifidi ) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Hypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Strike Bowling Bar: Strike Bowling Bar is an Australian-based company that owns and operates a portfolio of twelve bowling alleys along the Eastern Seaboard of Australia. Strike Bowling is currently Australia's largest privately owned bowling chain.Pelvic congestion syndrome: Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. The condition causes chronic pain, often manifesting as a constant dull ache, which can be aggravated by standing.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Select MedicalThermal grill illusion: The thermal grill illusion is a sensory illusion originally demonstrated in 1896 by the Swedish physician Torsten Thunberg. The illusion is created by an interlaced grill of warm (e.Chiropractic in Canada: Chiropractic in Canada is licensed at the provincial and territorial level. Council on Chiropractic Education of Canada accredits educational programs.Spinal manipulation: Spinal manipulation is a therapeutic intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints. These articulations in the spine that are amenable to spinal manipulative therapy include the z-joints, the atlanto-occipital, atlanto-axial, lumbosacral, sacroiliac, costotransverse and costovertebral joints.Lumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Back belt: Back belts, or lumbar support belts, are generally lightweight belts worn around the lower back to provide support to the lumbar. Industrial back belts tend to be similar to weight lifting belts or special belts used in medical rehabilitation therapy.Cervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain: The Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain is a quarterly Peer review-peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on chronic muscle and bone pain, including fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It is published by Informa Healthcare.Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction, also called sacroiliac joint disorder, sacroiliac joint disease, sacroiliac joint syndrome or sacroiliac syndrome, or "sacroilliac dysfunction and instability", generally refers to pain in the sacroiliac joint region that is caused by abnormal motion in the sacroiliac joint, either too much motion or too little motion. It typically results in inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, and can be debilitating.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.Facet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeSick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.Degenerative disc diseaseCompound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Riding-like sittingGuanyuan Jin: Dr. Guanyuan Jin 金观源, MD, C.DiscectomyArticulatory technique: Articulatory technique is a type of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) performed by osteopathic practitioners and U.S.AcupunctureOpioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Human factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in Thesaurus.com is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.Spinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.Neuropathic painDiscitisDry needling: Dry needling (Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needlinghttp://www.ncbi.Currarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Hydro massageInterbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Kocher's sign: Kocher's sign is a medical sign that denotes an eyelid phenomenon in hyperthyroidism and Basedow’s disease. In fixation on a fast upwards or downwards movement there occurs a convulsive retraction of the eyelid.Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.SpondylolisthesisHyperintensityPars interarticularisFull-body CT scan: A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. If computed tomography (CAT) scan technology is used, it is known as a full-body CT scan, though many medical imaging technologies can perform full-body scans.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Office of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Spinal fractureMechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Nerve blockQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Preventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Fibromyalgia: – FibromyalgiaCar tuningMultiple disabilitiesLaminectomySickness behavior: [Ancher 001.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Ancher, Michael], "The Sick Girl", 1882, [[Statens Museum for Kunst.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as: