Autoimmune diseaseProtective autoimmunity: Protective autoimmunity is a condition in which cells of the adaptive immune system contribute to maintenance of the functional integrity of a tissue, or facilitate its repair following an insult. The term ‘protective autoimmunity’ was coined by Prof.Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy: For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child.CCL20: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils.Anti-dsDNA antibodies: Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies and their target antigen is double stranded DNA. Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.ACR score for rheumatoid arthritis: ACR score is a scale to measure change in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. It is named after the American College of Rheumatology.Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes: The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD), is a collaborative type 1 diabetes research project funded by JDRF (formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). nPOD supports scientific investigators by providing, without cost, rare and difficult to obtain tissues beneficial to their research.Suppressor-inducer T cell: Suppressor-inducer T cells are a specific subset of CD4+ T helper cells that "induce" CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to become "suppressor" cells. Suppressor T cells are also known as CD25+–Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (nTregs), and reduce inflammation.List of multiple sclerosis organizations: List of Multiple Sclerosis Organizations in different countries around the worldAutoimmune thyroiditisPolyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Vitiligo Research FoundationCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Systemic sclerodermaAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases: The Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal. It is co-owned by the BMJ Group and the European League Against Rheumatism and covers all aspects of rheumatology, including musculoskeletal conditions, arthritis, and connective tissue diseases.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Myelin basic protein: Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system. The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction.GAB2: GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 also known as GAB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAB2 gene.Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein: Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) is a glycoprotein believed to be important in the myelination of nerves in the central nervous system (CNS). In humans this protein is encoded by the MOG gene.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.HypersensitivityHashimoto's encephalopathy: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was first described in 1966.Hereditary CNS demyelinating diseaseMir-638 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-638 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms.Immunosuppressive drug: Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:PemphigusMortimer's disease: Mortimer's disease is a skin disease characterized by red blotchy patterns appearing all over the face and hands, and spreading through the body in an almost symmetrical pattern. The fact that there are no ulcers, and an absence of crust, indicate that this is a different entity than lupus vulgaris.National Alopecia Areata Foundation: National Alopecia Areata Foundation based in San Rafael, California is dedicated to the discovery of a cure or treatment for alopecia areata and supporting the conditions victims. It was founded in 1981.FOXA2: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF-3B), also known as forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) or transcription factor 3B (TCF-3B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA2 gene.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.CTLA-4: CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates the immune system. CTLA4 is found on the surface of T cells, and acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells.ThymectomyMonoclonal antibody therapyKinetic-segregation model of T cell activationAcute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Myelin proteolipid protein: Myelin proteolipid protein (PLP or lipophilin) is the major myelin protein from the central nervous system (CNS). It plays an important role in the formation or maintenance of the multilamellar structure of myelin.T helper 3 cell: T helper 3 cells are a type of T helper cell, lymphocytes involved in regulating the immune response.T helper cells in general mediate the immune response by secreting cytokines and interacting with B-cells to enhance or inhibit their activity.Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8CD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.Myelin-associated glycoprotein: Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG, Siglec-4) is a cell membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the SIGLEC family of proteins and is a functional ligand of the NOGO-66 receptor, NgR. MAG is believed to be involved in myelination during nerve regeneration.Reticulon: Reticulons (RTNs in vertebrates and reticulon-like proteins or RNTls in other eukaryotes) are a group of evolutionary conservative proteins residing predominantly in endoplasmic reticulum, primarily playing a role in promoting membrane curvature. In addition reticulons may play a role in nuclear pore complex formation, vesicle formation, and other processes yet to be defined.Coles PhillipsBiological response modifiers: Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances that modify immune responses. They can be both endogenous (produced naturally within the body) and exogenous (as pharmaceutical drugs), and they can either enhance an immune response or suppress it.Immunomics: Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. With the rise of genomic and proteomic technologies, scientists have been able to visualize biological networks and infer interrelationships between genes and/or proteins; recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated.Arthritis Research UKLars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemiaNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.ImmunotherapyProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Glomerulonephritis