Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Coles PhillipsMethanopyrus: In taxonomy, Methanopyrus is a genus of the Methanopyraceae.See the NCBI webpage on Methanopyrus.Warner OlandFormate-nitrite transporter: Formate-nitrite transporters are a family of evolutionarily related transmembrane bacterial and archaebacterial proteins involved in transporting formate or nitrite. They include:Ignicoccus: Ignicoccus is a genus of Archaea living in marine hydrothermal vents. They were discovered in Kolbeinsey Ridge north of Iceland and in the Pacific Ocean (at 9 degrees N, 104 degrees W) in 2000 (Huber et al.Methanosarcinales S-layer Tile Protein: The Methanosarcinales S-layer Tile Protein (MSTP) is a protein family found almost exclusively in Methanomicrobia members of the order Methanosarcinales. Typically a tandem repeat of two DUF1608 domains are contained in a single MSTP protein chain and these proteins self-assemble into the protective proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) structure that encompasses the cell.Halobacteriales: In taxonomy, the Halobacteriales are an order of the Halobacteria,See the NCBI webpage on Halobacteriales. Data extracted from the found in water saturated or nearly saturated with salt.Thermoacidophile: A thermoacidophile (combination of thermophile and acidophile) is an extreme archeon which thrives in acidous, sulfur-rich, high temperature environments with low availability of organic material.Archease: In molecular biology, the archease superfamily of proteins are represented in all three domains of life. Archease genes are generally located adjacent to genes encoding proteins involved in DNA or RNA processing and therefore been predicted to be modulators or chaperones involved in DNA or RNA metabolism.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Methanocaldococcus jannaschii: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (formerly Methanococcus jannas chii) is a thermophilic methanogenic archaea in the class Methanococci. It was the first archaeon to have its complete genome sequenced.Archaeoglobus: Archaeoglobus is a genus of the phylum Euryarchaeota.See the NCBI webpage on Archaeoglobus.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Thermococcus kodakarensis: Thermococcus kodakarensis is a species of thermophilic archaea. The type strain T.Methylated-thiol-coenzyme M methyltransferase: Methylated-thiol-coenzyme M methyltransferase (, mtsA (gene)) is an enzyme with system name methylated-thiol:coenzyme M methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAmmonia transporterProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.TEX86: TEX86 is an organic paleothermometer based upon the membrane lipids of mesophilic marine Thaumarchaeota (formerly Marine Group 1 Crenarchaeota).Schouten, S.Oxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Thermoplasma: In taxonomy, Thermoplasma is a genus of the Thermoplasmataceae.See the NCBI webpage on Thermoplasma.CS-BLASTDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.GvpA: GvpA is a gas vesicle structural protein found in different phyla of bacteria and archaea for example in Halobacterium salinarum or Haloferax mediterranei. Gas vesicles are small, hollow, gas filled protein structures found in several cyanobacterial and archaebacterial microorganisms.HEPN domain: In molecular biology, the HEPN domain (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding domain) is a region of approximately 110 amino acids found in the C terminus of sacsin, a chaperonin implicated in an early-onset neurodegenerative disease in human, and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains:D-proline dehydrogenase: D-proline dehydrogenase (, D-Pro DH, D-Pro dehydrogenase, dye-linked D-proline dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with system name D-proline:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHalobacterium salinarum: Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic marine Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon. Despite its name, this microorganism is not a bacterium, but rather a member of the domain Archaea.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Acidophile: Acidophiles or acidophilic organisms are those that thrive under highly acidic conditions (usually at pH 2.0 or below).Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionMethanogen: Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. They are classified as archaea, a domain distinct from bacteria.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Sulfolobales: In taxonomy, the Sulfolobales are an order of the Thermoprotei.See the NCBI webpage on Sulfolobales.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Reaction coordinateFecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Intramembrane protease: Intramembrane proteases (IMPs), also known as intermembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs), are enzymes that have the property of cleaving transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins. All known intramembrane proteases are themselves integral membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains, and they have their active sites buried within the lipid bilayer of cellular membranes.EcosystemMcIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).T-box leaderSoil salinity control: Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Continuous Plankton Recorder: The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world. Started in 1931 by Sir Alister Hardy, the CPR has provided marine scientists with their only measure of plankton communities on a pan-oceanic scale.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.BioreactorFishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Indian Ridge Hospital Open Invitational: The Indian Ridge Hospital Open Invitational was a PGA Tour satellite event that played for one year at the Indian Ridge Country Club in Andover, Massachusetts. The tournament, which was held in August 1969 and organized by Indian Ridge head club pro Ross Coon, benefited the Children's Hospital of Boston.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Zetaproteobacteria: The class Zetaproteobacteria is the sixth and most recently described class of the Proteobacteria. Zetaproteobacteria can also refer to the group of organisms assigned to this class.Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Desulfococcus oleovorans Strain Hxd3: Desulfococcus oleovorans Strain Hxd3 was isolated from the saline water phase of an oil-water separator from a northern German oil field.Aeckersberg, F.Wujing Zongyao: The Wujing Zongyao (), or the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044. It contains the earliest known written formulas for gunpowder, made from saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal, along with many added ingredients.Haloarcula hispanica SH1 virus: Haloarcula hispanica SH1 virus is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects the archaeon Haloarcula hispanica.Bamford DH, Ravantti JJ, Rönnholm G, Laurinavicius S, Kukkaro P, Dyall-Smith M, Somerharju P, Kalkkinen N, Bamford JK (2005) Constituents of SH1, a novel lipid-containing virus infecting the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloarcula hispanica.Microbiota: A microbiota is "the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space". Joshua Lederberg coined the term, emphasising the importance of microorganisms inhabiting the human body in health and disease.List of hot springs: There are hot springs on all continents and in many countries around the world. Countries that are renowned for their hot springs include Honduras, Canada, Chile, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Japan, New Zealand and United States, but there are interesting and unique hot springs in many other places as well.Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are those bacteria and archaea that can obtain energy by oxidizing organic compounds or molecular hydrogen (H2) while reducing sulfate () to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In a sense, these organisms "breathe" sulfate rather than oxygen in a form of anaerobic respiration.