Aptamer: Aptamers (from the Latin aptus - fit, and Greek meros - part) are oligonucleotide or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule. Aptamers are usually created by selecting them from a large random sequence pool, but natural aptamers also exist in riboswitches.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Energy charge: Energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. It is related to ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations.YjdF RNA motifProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Abscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Purine nucleotide cycle: The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the concentration of Krebs cycle intermediates.Salway, J.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Fluorescent glucose biosensor: Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market,No fluorescent biosensor has yet entered the medical market, however, in the market for research tools several fluorescent biosensors are present, such as a kit using [Vibrio fischeri] but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors.Cyclic nucleotideDeoxyribozyme: Deoxyribozymes, also called DNA enzymes, DNAzymes, or catalytic DNA, are DNA oligonucleotides that are capable of catalyzing specific chemical reactions, similar to the action of other biological enzymes, such as proteins or ribozymes (enzymes composed of RNA).Nucleotide exchange factor: Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Acoustic resonance technology: Acoustic resonance technology is an acoustic inspection technology developed by Det Norske Veritas over the past 20 years. ART exploits the phenomenon of half-wave resonance, whereby a suitably excited resonant target (such as a pipeline wall) exhibits longitudinal resonances at certain frequencies characteristic of the target's thickness.Library (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Streptavidin: Streptavidin is a 52.8 kDa protein purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii.Sticky and blunt ends: DNA end or sticky end refers to the properties of the end of a molecule of DNA or a recombinant DNA molecule. The concept is important in molecular biology, especially in cloning or when subcloning inserts DNA into vector DNA.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Ligand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.Thermal cyclerBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Nucleic acid secondary structure: The secondary structure of a nucleic acid molecule refers to the basepairing interactions within a single molecule or set of interacting molecules, and can be represented as a list of bases which are paired in a nucleic acid molecule.Noncovalent solid-phase organic synthesis: Noncovalent solid-phase organic synthesis or NC-SPOS is a form of Solid-phase synthesis whereby the organic substrate is bonded to the solid phase not by a covalent bond but by other chemical interactions. This bond may consist of an induced dipole interaction between a hydrophobic matrix and a hydrophobic anchor.Reaction coordinateMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.CS-BLASTLogarithmic form: In contexts including complex manifolds and algebraic geometry, a logarithmic differential form is a meromorphic differential form with poles of a certain kind.Restriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Genetic variation: right|thumbCodon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Lysine riboswitchBase pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Open reading frame: In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the potential to code for a protein or peptide. An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that do not contain a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).Hairpin ribozymeCpG OligodeoxynucleotideFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.WIN 56,098: WIN 56,098 is a chemical that is considered to be an aminoalkylindole derivative. It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.Biopanning: Biopanning is an affinity selection technique which selects for peptides that bind to a given target.Ehrlich GK, Berthold W, and Bailon P.Direct thrombin inhibitor: Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are a class of medication that act as anticoagulants (delaying blood clotting) by directly inhibiting the enzyme thrombin (factor II). Some are in clinical use, while others are undergoing clinical development.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Calcium guanylateMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Thymidine triphosphateThe Lemon Trees: The Lemon Trees were a 1990s UK pop band consisting of Guy Chambers, twin brothers Paul Stacey and Jeremy Stacey, Alex Lewis and Paul Holman. The band formed in 1993 and recorded two albums, but the second was not released.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Massive parallel sequencing: Massive parallel sequencing or massively parallel sequencing is any of several high-throughput approaches to DNA sequencing using the concept of massively parallel processing; it is also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) or second-generation sequencing. Some of these technologies emerged in 1994-1998 and became commercially available since 2005.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Microfluidics: Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field intersecting engineering, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, nanotechnology, and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which low volumes of fluids are processed to achieve multiplexing, automation, and high-throughput screening. Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips, lab-on-a-chip technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal technologies.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.