Aortic insufficiencyAortic valve replacementTricuspid insufficiencyRegurgitant fraction: Regurgitant fraction is the percentage of blood that regurgitates back through the aortic valve to the left ventricle due to aortic insufficiency, or through the mitral valve to the atrium due to mitral insufficiency. It is measured as the amount of blood regurgitated into a cardiac chamber divided by the stroke volume.Afterload: Afterload is the pressure in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection. In other words, it is the end load against which the heart contracts to eject blood.Mitral valve replacementRobot-assisted double heart valve replacement: The first robotic-assisted double heart valve replacement was carried out in the Chennai region of India at Chettinad Hospital. Considered a rare form of surgery, this is the first instance of such a procedure using robotic surgery.Hybrid cardiac surgery: A hybrid cardiac surgical procedure in a narrow sense is defined as a procedure that combines a conventional surgical part (including a skin incision) with an interventional part, using some sort of catheter-based procedure guided by fluoroscopy (or other, e.g.George Allan HancockCritical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients.Ross procedurePerforator vein: Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.http://www.Calcinosis cutisInfective endocarditisHandgrip maneuver: The handgrip maneuver is performed by clenching one's fist forcefully for a sustained time until fatigued. Variations include squeezing an item such as a rolled up washcloth.Placental insufficiencyCommissurotomy: A commissurotomy is a surgical incision of a commissure in the body, as one made in the heart at the edges of the commissure formed by cardiac valves, or one made in the brain to treat certain psychiatric disorders.Transesophageal echocardiogram