Preventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.Anesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia: Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (CSE) is a regional anaesthetic technique, which combines the benefits of both spinal anaesthesia and epidural anaesthesia and analgesia. The spinal component gives a rapid onset of a predictable block.Spinal anaesthesia: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).Paracervical block: A paracervical block is an anesthetic procedure used in obstetrics and gynecology, in which a local anesthetic is injected into between two to six sites at a depth of 3–7 mm alongside the vaginal portion of the cervix in the vaginal fornices.paracervical block By Robert Nadelberg.Opioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.BupivacaineOhmefentanylInternational Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies: The International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies (IFDAS) is a professional association established in 1976. IFDAS is devoted solely to promoting the safe and effective use of sedation and anesthesia by educationally qualified dentists for their patients.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Nerve blockInhalational anaesthetic: An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation. They are administered by anaesthetists (a term which includes anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, and anaesthesiologist assistants) through an anaesthesia mask, laryngeal mask airway or tracheal tube connected to an anaesthetic vaporiser and an anaesthetic delivery system.Propofol infusion syndrome: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol. It can lead to cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure, and is often fatal.Compound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Lidocaine: lignocaineNitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.SufentanilNational Dental Board of Anesthesiology: The National Dental Board of Anesthesiology (NDBA) is an American professional association established in 2001 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. Based in Chicago, NDBA is the world's largest national dental board devoted to sedation and anesthesia.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Lanicemine: Lanicemine (AZD6765) is a low-trapping NMDA receptor antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, which was being studied for the management of severe and treatment-resistant depression. It was originally developed as a neuroprotective agent, but was redeveloped as an antidepressant following the observation that the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has potent antidepressant effects, but also has hallucinogenic side effects which make it unsuitable for use as an antidepressant in most circumstances.Anesthesia: In the practice of medicine, especially surgery, and dentistry, anesthesia (or anaesthesia) is an induced, temporary state with one or more of the following characteristics: analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (extreme muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), and unconsciousness. An anesthetic is an agent that causes anaesthesia.Procedural sedation and analgesia: Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function."Lower segment Caesarean section: A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section used today. It includes a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections.PinnacleHealth System: $1 billion (2013)Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.HalothanePostoperative nausea and vomiting: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year. A 2008 study compared 121 Japanese patients who experienced PONV after being given the general anesthetic propofol to 790 people who were free of post-operative nausea after receiving it.IsobutyramideNordli's Cabinet: Nordli's Cabinet governed Norway between 15 January 1976 and 4 February 1981. The Labour Party cabinet was led by Odvar Nordli.EPENonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.Theories of general anaesthetic action: A general anaesthetic (or anesthetic) is a drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. These drugs are generally administered by an anaesthetist/anaesthesiologist in order to induce or maintain general anaesthesia to facilitate surgery.Lidocaine/prilocaineGas cylinder: A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure. High-pressure gas cylinders are also called bottles.RomifidineEnfluraneHistory of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Intraoperative radiation therapyHypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.Infiltration analgesia: Infiltration analgesia is deposition of an analgesic drug close to the apex of a tooth so that it can diffuse to reach the nerve entering the apical foramina.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Phenylpiperidine: Phenylpiperidine is a chemical compound with a phenyl moiety directly attached to piperidine. There are a variety of pharmacological effects associated some phenylpiperidines including morphine-like activity or other central nervous system effects.ClonidineMidazolamAlcohol tolerance: Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism.Klumpke paralysisConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.SC-17599Cervical dilation: Cervical dilation (or cervical dilatation) is the opening of the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, during childbirth, miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological surgery. Cervical dilation may occur naturally, or may be induced by surgical or medical means.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPiritramideHydromorphonePrimary Health Care and Resource Centre: The Primary Health Care and Resource Center (PHCRC) is in the rural village of Chapagaun, Lalitpur in Nepal. Chapagaun is in the wider Kathmandu Valley.Qualia: In philosophy, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term "qualia" derives from the Latin neuter plural form (qualia) of the Latin adjective quālis () meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind").Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Revised Cardiac Risk Index