Compound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Opioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Preventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Rumack-Matthew nomogram: The Rumack-Matthew nomogram, also known as Rumack-Matthews nomogram or the Acetaminophen nomogram is an acetaminophen toxicity nomogram plotting serum concentration of acetaminophen against the time since ingestion in an attempt to prognosticate possible liver toxicity as well as allowing a clinician to decide whether to proceed with N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment or not. It is a logarithmic graph starting not directly from ingestion, but from 4 hours post ingestion after absorption is considered likely to be complete.DextropropoxypheneCelecoxibAlcohol tolerance: Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism.CodeineHypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.OhmefentanylPentazocineSC-17599Oxycodone/paracetamolLocal anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).BupivacainePlacebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.KetoprofenAspirin/paracetamol/caffeineTolmetinOpioid receptor: Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. The endogenous opioids are dynorphins, enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins and nociceptin.Hydrocodone/ibuprofenInfiltration analgesia: Infiltration analgesia is deposition of an analgesic drug close to the apex of a tooth so that it can diffuse to reach the nerve entering the apical foramina.IbuprofenNeuropathic painHydromorphoneConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Nalorphine dinicotinate: Nalorphine dinicotinate (Nimelan), or N-allylnormorphine dinicotinate, also known as niconalorphine, is a semisynthetic, mixed opioid agonist-antagonist used as a narcotic antagonist.DicycloverineAgonist–antagonistPeripheral edemaNociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.OxymorphoneCyclorphan: Cyclorphan is an opioid compound that is a δ-opioid receptor agonist, a κ-opioid receptor agonist, and a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. Chemically, it is a morphinan and is related to levorphanol.Nonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Antipyretic: Antipyretics (), from the Greek anti, against, and pyreticus, pertaining to fever, are substances that reduce fever. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature.Lanicemine: Lanicemine (AZD6765) is a low-trapping NMDA receptor antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, which was being studied for the management of severe and treatment-resistant depression. It was originally developed as a neuroprotective agent, but was redeveloped as an antidepressant following the observation that the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has potent antidepressant effects, but also has hallucinogenic side effects which make it unsuitable for use as an antidepressant in most circumstances.Acetic acid bacteria: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during fermentation. They are gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.NalbuphineNerve blockChronic painCyclazocineKetorolacSufentanilLidocaine: lignocaineMorphiceptinBroad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor: A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor or BSCI (also termed Chemotide or Somatotaxin ) is a type of experimental anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines.PiroxicamOrganic base: An organic base is an organic compound which acts as a base. Organic bases are usually, but not always, proton acceptors.Nitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.ClonidinePimpleLow-dose naltrexone: Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) describes the off-label use of the medication naltrexone at low doses for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Naltrexone is typically prescribed for opioid dependence or alcohol dependence, as it is a strong opioid antagonist.IsobutyramideTAN-67: TAN-67 (SB-205,607) is a opioid drug used in scientific research that acts as a potent and selective δ-opioid agonist,Fujii H, Kawai K, Kawamura K, Mizusuna A, Onoda Y, Murachi M, Tanaka T, Endoh T, Nagase H. Synthesis of optically active TAN-67, a highly selective delta opioid receptor agonist, and investigation of its pharmacological properties.Nociceptin receptor: The nociceptin receptor or NOP also known as the orphanin FQ receptor or kappa-type 3 opioid receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPRL1 (opioid receptor-like 1) gene. The nociceptin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor whose natural ligand is known as nociceptin or orphanin FQ, a 17 amino acid neuropeptide.Electroacupuncture: Electroacupuncture is a form of acupuncture where a small electric current is passed between pairs of acupuncture needles.Lidocaine/prilocainePostoperative nausea and vomiting: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year. A 2008 study compared 121 Japanese patients who experienced PONV after being given the general anesthetic propofol to 790 people who were free of post-operative nausea after receiving it.PhytomedicineNeuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.AspirinSpinal anaesthesia: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).EPEFormaldehyde