Heterodimeric amino-acid transporter: Heterodimeric amino-acid transporters are a family of transport proteins that facilitate the transport of certain amino acids across cell membranes. Each transporter comprises a two-protein, a light and heavy, subunit.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Mediated transportPeptaibol: Peptaibols are biologically active peptides containing between seven and twenty amino acid residues, some of which are non-proteinogenic amino acids. In particular, they contain α-aminoisobutyric acid along with other unusual aminoacids such as ethylnorvaline, isovaline and hydroxyproline; the N-terminus is acetylated, and the C-terminal amino acid is hydroxylated to an acid alcohol.Transcellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.SLC6A15: Solute carrier family 6 member 15 (SLC6A15) also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2 (B0AT2)' is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A15 gene.Genderblind: Genderblind, also known as CG6070, is a gene that was discovered in Drosophila melanogaster by University of Illinois at Chicago researcher David Featherstone."Homosexuality Turned On and Off in Fruit Flies", LiveScience, 9 December 2007, accessed 10 December 2007 The gene encodes a member of the cystine/glutamate transporter family of proteins.LeucineFractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Phenylalanine N-monooxygenase: Phenylalanine N-monooxygenase (, phenylalanine N-hydroxylase, CYP79A2) is an enzyme with system name L-phenylalanine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.GlutamineProline-Rich Coiled Coil 1: Proline Rich Coiled Coil-1 (PRCC1) is the commonly identified protein name of CAD38605. The PRCC1 gene is found on the long arm of Chromosome 5.CystineIsoleucine N-monooxygenase: Isoleucine N-monooxygenase (, CYP79D3, CYP79D4) is an enzyme with system name L-isoleucine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionTransport protein: A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter protein, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism. Transport proteins are vital to the growth and life of all living things.Valine N-monooxygenase: Valine N-monooxygenase (, CYP79D1, CYP79D2) is an enzyme with system name L-valine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Protein detoxification: Protein detoxification is the process by which proteins containing methylated arginine are broken down and removed from the body.AcetyllysineLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Cell membraneColes PhillipsAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Tryptophan operon leaderList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.HistidineSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Taurocholic acidDodecanedioic acidMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Chemical modification: ==Chemical modification in chemistry==Postprandial somnolence: Postprandial somnolence (colloquially known as a food coma, carb coma, or in the African-American community the itis) is a normal state of drowsiness or lassitude following a meal. Postprandial somnolence has two components: a general state of low energy related to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system in response to mass in the gastrointestinal tract, and a specific state of sleepiness.EctoineGlycine (plant): Glycine is a genus in the bean family Fabaceae. The best known species is the soybean (Glycine max).International Cystinuria Foundation: The International Cystinuria Foundation (ICF) is a Colorado based nonprofit organization that provides educational resources to individuals affected by cystinuria. Its mission is to strengthen, educate, and further the general well being of the cystinuric community.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIIminoglycinuriaGlucose transporterCarbon-12: Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.MicrovillusEagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.MethionineMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Pseudomonadaceae: Pseudomonadaceae is a family of bacteria that includes the genera Azomonas, Azomonotrichon, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, Cellvibrio, Mesophilobacter, Pseudomonas (the type genus), Rhizobacter, Rugamonas, and Serpens.Skerman, McGowan and Sneath (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names.Phenyl acetateCycloheximideElectroneutral cation-Cl: In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins. This family includes the products of the Human genes: SLC12A1, SLC12A1, SLC12A2, SLC12A3, SLC12A4, SLC12A5, SLC12A6, SLC12A7, SLC12A8 and SLC12A9.CS-BLASTAxoplasmic transport: Axoplasmic transport, also called axonal transport, is a cellular process responsible for movement of mitochondria, lipids, synaptic vesicles, proteins, and other cell parts (i.e.Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation: Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the chemical reaction of an alkene with osmium tetroxide in the presence of a chiral quinine ligand to form a vicinal diol.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Essential amino acid: An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, but must be supplied in its diet. The nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine (i.Placenta: The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing babies and removes waste products from the baby's blood.Isocyanide: An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C. It is the isomer of the related cyanide (-C≡N), hence the prefix iso.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Azide: Azide is the anion with the formula N3DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.