Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Mac OS X Server 1.0Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: MICAI (short for Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence) is the name of an annual conference covering all areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI), held in Mexico. The first MICAI conference was held in 2000.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Protein subcellular localization prediction: Protein subcellular localization prediction (or just protein localization prediction) involves the computational prediction of where a protein resides in a cell.CS-BLASTImaging phantom: Phantom}}Demodulation: Demodulation is the act of extracting the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit (or computer program in a software-defined radio) that is used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave.Jigsaw (power tool): A jigsaw power tool is a jigsaw made up of an electric motor and a reciprocating saw blade.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Vladimir Andreevich Markov: Vladimir Andreevich Markov (; May 8, 1871 – January 18, 1897) was a Russian mathematician, known for proving the Markov brothers' inequality with his older brother Andrey Markov. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 25.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Human Proteinpedia: Human Proteinpedia is a portal for sharing and integration of human proteomic data,.Kandasamy et al.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Monte Carlo methods for option pricing: In mathematical finance, a Monte Carlo option model uses Monte Carlo methods Although the term 'Monte Carlo method' was coined by Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, some trace such methods to the 18th century French naturalist Buffon, and a question he asked about the results of dropping a needle randomly on a striped floor or table. See Buffon's needle.List of molecular graphics systems: This is a list of software systems that are used for visualizing macromolecules.XAP Home Automation protocol: xAP is an open protocol used for home automation and supports integration of telemetry and control devices primarily within the home. Common communications networks include RS232, RS485, Ethernet& wireless.Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.Physical neural network: A physical neural network is a type of artificial neural network in which an electrically adjustable resistance material is used to emulate the function of a neural synapse. "Physical" neural network is used to emphasize the reliance on physical hardware used to emulate neurons as opposed to software-based approaches which simulate neural networks.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Immersive technologyLempel–Ziv–Oberhumer: Lempel–Ziv–Oberhumer (LZO) is a lossless data compression algorithm that is focused on decompression speed.Vague setEEGLAB: EEGLAB is a MATLAB toolbox distributed under the free GNU GPL license for processing data from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and other electrophysiological signals. Along with all the basic processing tools, EEGLAB implements independent component analysis (ICA), time/frequency analysis, artifact rejection, and several modes of data visualization.Computer-aided diagnosis: In radiology, computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are procedures in medicine that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Imaging techniques in X-ray, MRI, and Ultrasound diagnostics yield a great deal of information, which the radiologist has to analyze and evaluate comprehensively in a short time.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==STO-nG basis sets: STO-nG basis sets are minimal basis sets, where n primitive Gaussian orbitals are fitted to a single Slater-type orbital (STO). n originally took the values 2 - 6.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.UnsharpnessAngiographyRDF query language: An RDF query language is a computer language, specifically a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format.List of transforms: This is a list of transforms in mathematics.Andy HardyProcess mining: Process mining is a process management technique that allows for the analysis of business processes based on event logs. The basic idea is to extract knowledge from event logs recorded by an information system.Protein–protein interactionReaction coordinateBody area network: A body area network (BAN), also referred to as a wireless body area network (WBAN) or a body sensor network (BSN), is a wireless network of wearable computing devices.Developing wireless body area networks standardSana Ullah, Henry Higgins, Bart Braem, Benoit Latre, Chris Blondia, Ingrid Moerman, Shahnaz Saleem, Ziaur Rahman and Kyung Sup Kwak, A Comprehensive Survey of Wireless Body Area Networks: On PHY, MAC, and Network Layers Solutions, Journal of Medical Systems (Springer), 2010.Corinna CortesVisionxList of software development philosophies: This is a list of approaches, styles, and philosophies in software development not included in the category tree of software development philosophies. It contains also software development processes, software development methodologies and single practices, principles and laws.Calculator: An electronic calculator is a small, portable electronic device used to perform both basic operations of arithmetic and complex mathematical operations.Coles PhillipsDoob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesBiological network: A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units that are linked into a whole, such as species units linked into a whole food web.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Negative probability: The probability of the outcome of an experiment is never negative, but quasiprobability distributions can be defined that allow a negative probability for some events. These distributions may apply to unobservable events or conditional probabilities.Chromosome regionsBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.HyperintensityTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Modified Maddrey's discriminant function: The modified Maddrey's discriminant function) was originally described by Maddrey and Boitnott to predict prognosis in alcoholic hepatitis. It is calculated by a simple formula:PlanmecaDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.The Unscrambler: The Unscrambler® X is a commercial software product for multivariate data analysis, used for calibration of multivariate data which is often in the application of analytical data such as near infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and development of predictive models for use in real-time spectroscopic analysis of materials. The software was originally developed in 1986 by Harald MartensHarald Martens, Terje Karstang, Tormod Næs (1987) Improved selectivity in spectroscopy by multivariate calibration Journal of Chemometrics 1(4):201-219 and later by CAMO Software.Nonlinear system: In physics and other sciences, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle – meaning that the output of a nonlinear system is not directly proportional to the input.Ideal number: In number theory an ideal number is an algebraic integer which represents an ideal in the ring of integers of a number field; the idea was developed by Ernst Kummer, and led to Richard Dedekind's definition of ideals for rings. An ideal in the ring of integers of an algebraic number field is principal if it consists of multiples of a single element of the ring, and nonprincipal otherwise.Cable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.RV coefficient: In statistics, the RV coefficientWGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Acknowledgement (data networks): In data networking, an acknowledgement (or acknowledgment) is a signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of response, as part of a communications protocol. For instance, ACK packets are used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the receipt of SYN packets when establishing a connection, data packets while a connection is being used, and FIN packets when terminating a connection.Dragomir R. Radev: Dragomir R. Radev is a University of Michigan computer science professor and Columbia University computer science adjunct professor working on natural language processing and information retrieval.Electrical impedance tomography: Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique in which an image of the conductivity or permittivity of part of the body is inferred from surface electrode measurements. Electrical conductivity depends on free ion content and differs considerably between various biological tissues (absolute EIT) or different functional states of one and the same tissue or organ (relative or functional EIT).Plant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.