Sympathoadrenal: The term sympathoadrenal means "involving the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system". It normally relates to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which acts on the adrenal medulla of the kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.Absent adrenal glandAdrenal tumorRostral ventromedial medulla: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). The rostral ventromedial medulla sends descending inhibitory and excitatory fibers to the dorsal horn spinal cord neurons.Catecholaminergic cell groups: Catecholaminergic cell groups refers to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain one of the neurotransmitters dopamine or norepinephrine. Thus, it represents the combination of dopaminergic cell groups and noradrenergic cell groups.Renal medullaChromaffin cellDopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency: Dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency is a condition involving inadequate Dopamine beta hydroxylase. It is characterized by increased amounts of serum dopamine and the absence of nor-epinephrine and epinephrine.PheochromocytomaCritical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients.GraninPhenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase: Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Adrenalin O.D.Proenkephalin: Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides [Met]enkephalin, and to a lesser extent, [Leu]enkephalin. Upon cleavage, each proenkephalin peptide results in the generation of four copies of [Met]enkephalin, two extended copies of [Met]enkephalin, and one copy of [Leu]enkephalin.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyAdrenocortical hyperfunctionMorphiceptinAlcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.CorticosteroneGangliocytic paraganglioma: A gangliocytic paraganglioma, abbreviated GP, is a rare tumour that is typically found in the duodenum and consists of three components: (1) ganglion cells, (2) epithelioid cells (paraganglioma-like) and, (3) spindle cells (schwannoma-like).Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.ChlorisondamineNicotine replacement therapyAdrenocortical adenoma: A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal cortex.Zinc carboxypeptidase: A:127-412 A:128-415 E:128-406Endocrine glandMuscarinePositional asphyxia: Positional asphyxia, also known as postural asphyxia, is a form of asphyxia which occurs when someone's position prevents the person from breathing adequately. Positional asphyxia may be a factor in a significant number of people who die suddenly during restraint by police, prison (corrections) officers or health care staff.Cushing reflex: Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and a reduction of the heart rate. It is usually seen in the terminal stages of acute head injury and may indicate imminent brain herniation.Specific granule: Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.ExocytosisAldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Geranylhydroquinone 3''-hydroxylase: Geranylhydroquinone 3-hydroxylase (, GHQ 3-hydroxylase) is an enzyme with system name geranylhydroquinone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Renal cortexCold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.PC12 cell line: PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Zona glomerulosa: The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule. Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball").Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Neuropeptide S: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.Aldosterone-to-renin ratio: Aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the mass concentration of aldosterone divided by the plasma renin activity in blood plasma. The aldosterone/renin ratio is recommended as screening tool for primary hyperaldosteronism.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Adrenomedullin: Adrenomedullin (ADM or AM) is a vasodilator peptide hormone of uncertain significance in human health and disease. It was initially isolated in 1993 from pheochromyctoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla: hence the name.Cervical ganglia: The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. These emerging postganglionic nerves synapse with preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord.Zona reticularis: The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla. The cells are arranged cords that project in different directions giving a net-like appearance (L.Addison's disease in canines: Addison's disease in canines refers to hypoadrenocorticism, or Addison's disease, when it occurs in canines. The first case of Addison's disease in dogs was recorded in 1953, over 100 years after it was described in humans by Thomas Addison.Coles Phillips