Energy charge: Energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. It is related to ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations.TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAdenine nucleotide translocator: Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and imports ADP into the matrix. ANT is the most plentiful protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane.Mitochondrial carrier: A:9-104 A:112-206 A:112-206NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Coles PhillipsPurine nucleotide cycle: The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the concentration of Krebs cycle intermediates.Salway, J.Adenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".P/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.Hardgainer: A hardgainer is an arbitrary label that describes a person who practices bodybuilding but finds it challenging to develop musculature regardless of the amount of effort put in. The opposite of a hardgainer is an easygainer.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Thioinosinic acidMitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Nucleoside-triphosphate-hexose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase: Nucleoside-triphosphate-aldose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase (, NDP hexose pyrophosphorylase, hexose 1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase, hexose nucleotidylating enzyme, nucleoside diphosphohexose pyrophosphorylase, hexose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase, GTP:alpha-D-hexose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase, GDP hexose pyrophosphorylase, guanosine diphosphohexose pyrophosphorylase, NTP:hexose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name NTP:alpha-D-aldose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSurE, survival protein E: In molecular biology, the protein domain surE refers to survival protein E. It was originally found that cells that did not contain this protein, could not survive in the stationary phase, at above normal temperatures, and in high-salt media.Sodium hexametaphosphateLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Magnesium acetateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Adenylate kinase: Adenylate kinase () (also known as ADK or myokinase) is a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides, and plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis.Bradford LesliePurineEHNADNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer: Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.AAA proteins: For other uses see AAA (disambiguation)Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Apyrase: Apyrase (, ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma membrane-bound enzyme (magnesium can also activate it) () that catalyses the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and inorganic phosphate. Two isoenzymes are found in commercial preparations from S.Anaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.Cyclic nucleotideMitochondrial membrane transport protein: Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria and which serve to transport molecules and other factors such as ions into or out of the organelles.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Nucleotide exchange factor: Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.AminohydrolaseMyocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.Affinity label: Affinity labels are molecules similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific enzyme and are considered to be a class of enzyme inhibitors. These molecules covalently modify active site residues in order to reveal the active site and thus elucidate its structure.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.EtamiphyllineEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Phosphotransferase: Phosphotransferases are a category of enzymes (EC number 2.7) that catalyze phosphorylation reactions.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.HexokinaseReaction coordinateRibose 5-phosphateTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTetrasodium pyrophosphate