TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEnergy charge: Energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. It is related to ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations.Adenine nucleotide translocator: Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and imports ADP into the matrix. ANT is the most plentiful protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane.Mitochondrial carrier: A:9-104 A:112-206 A:112-206Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Oxidoreductase FAD-binding domain: B:7-104 B:7-104 B:7-104PurineAdenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.EHNAArabinosyltransferase: In molecular biology, an arabinosyltransferase is a transferase enzyme acting upon arabinose."Reconstitution of functional mycobacterial arabinosyltransferase AftC proteoliposome and assessment of decaprenylphosphorylarabinose analogues as arabinofuranosyl donors.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DeoxyadenosinePurine nucleotide cycle: The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the concentration of Krebs cycle intermediates.Salway, J.Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirColes PhillipsList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.LodenosineDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.Nucleoside analogue: Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar. Nucleotide analogs are nucleotides which contain a nucleic acid analogue, a sugar and one to three phosphate groups.Ribose 5-phosphateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.DNA demethylation: DNA demethylation is the process of removal of a methyl group from nucleotides in DNA. DNA demethylation could be passive or active.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Oxoguanine glycosylase: 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase also known as OGG1 is a DNA glycosylase enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the OGG1 gene. It is involved in base excision repair.Tetratricopeptide: B:89-122 A:522-555 B:228-261Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Archaeosine synthase: Archaeosine synthase (, ArcS, TgtA2, MJ1022 (gene), glutamine:preQ0-tRNA amidinotransferase) is an enzyme with system name L-glutamine:7-cyano-7-carbaguanine aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Thioinosinic acidP/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.Sodium hexametaphosphateReaction coordinateCell-free protein synthesis: Cell-free protein synthesis (also called in-vitro protein synthesis or abbreviated CFPS), is the production of protein using biological machinery without the use of living cells. The in-vitro protein synthesis environment is not constrained by a cell wall or homeostasis conditions necessary to maintain cell viability.Hardgainer: A hardgainer is an arbitrary label that describes a person who practices bodybuilding but finds it challenging to develop musculature regardless of the amount of effort put in. The opposite of a hardgainer is an easygainer.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Amphibacillus xylanus: Amphibacillus xylanus or A. xylanus is a gram-positive-spore forming bacterium with cells 0.ThymineRossmann foldProkaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein: In molecular biology, the prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Nucleoside-triphosphate-hexose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase: Nucleoside-triphosphate-aldose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase (, NDP hexose pyrophosphorylase, hexose 1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase, hexose nucleotidylating enzyme, nucleoside diphosphohexose pyrophosphorylase, hexose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase, GTP:alpha-D-hexose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase, GDP hexose pyrophosphorylase, guanosine diphosphohexose pyrophosphorylase, NTP:hexose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name NTP:alpha-D-aldose-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionUracil in DNA: DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiencyIndophenolChloro(cyclopentadienyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)rutheniumVidarabineNucleobase cation symporter-1Glutamate dehydrogenase: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle.Adenosine deaminase deficiencyCyclic ADP-riboseBase pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.TazaroteneDeoxyadenosine triphosphate: = = =Magnesium acetateSpectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Ethyl groupSurE, survival protein E: In molecular biology, the protein domain surE refers to survival protein E. It was originally found that cells that did not contain this protein, could not survive in the stationary phase, at above normal temperatures, and in high-salt media.Vidarabine phosphateNucleotide salvage: A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.Adenylate kinase: Adenylate kinase () (also known as ADK or myokinase) is a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides, and plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Lysine 2,3-aminomutase: Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (KAM or LAM) () is a radical SAM enzyme that facilitates the conversion of the amino acid lysine to beta-lysine.Frey, P.Smoke DZA: New York, New York, United StatesEnprofyllineElectron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Abscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.