Xenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.Soyasapogenol glucuronosyltransferase: Soyasapogenol glucuronosyltransferase (, UGASGT) is an enzyme with system name UDP-D-glucuronate:soyasapogenol 3-O-D-glucuronosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBiotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.Bacterial glutathione transferase: Bacterial glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.ChlorobutanolLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIPhenobarbitalCYP2C9*3: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), a member of the CYP2C enzyme subfamily, ranks amongst the mostEuropean law on drug precursors: European law on illicit drug precursors:List of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.ABCC4: ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4 (ABCC4), also known as the multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) or multi-specific organic anion transporter B (MOAT-B), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC4 gene.Carbohydrate sulfotransferaseConstitutive enzyme: Constitutive enzymeshttp://goldbook.iupac.TariquidarMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Enzyme inducer: Principles of Fermentation TechnologyTransporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.Orphan receptor: An orphan receptor is an apparent receptor that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified. If a ligand for an orphan receptor is later discovered, the receptor is referred to as an "adopted orphan".Halocarbon: Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine – ) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds. Chlorine halocarbons are the most common and are called organochlorides.DDT in New Zealand: The use of DDT in New Zealand was banned in 1989 due to negative environmental impacts.Organic anion-transporting polypeptide: An organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) is a membrane transport protein or 'transporter' that mediates the transport of mainly organic anions across the cell membrane. Therefore OATPs are present in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, acting as the cell's gatekeepers.Isozyme: Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.Naphthol Green BSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Herbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.Fungicide: Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.Interaction of 2,4,5-trich|orophenylsulphonylmethyl thiocyanate with fungal spores Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit.Clavaminate synthase: Clavaminate synthase (, clavaminate synthase 2, clavaminic acid synthase) is an enzyme with system name deoxyamidinoproclavaminate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionATC code A01: ==A01A Stomatological preparations==ChlordaneMultiple drug resistance: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety).Journal of Medical Toxicology: The Journal of Medical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed medical journal on medical toxicology and the official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. It publishes original articles, illustrative cases, review articles, and other special features that are related to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with exposure to various poisons.LindaneLinoleate 8R-lipoxygenase: Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase (, linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase, 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 5,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), PpoA) is an enzyme with system name linoleate:oxygen (8R)-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAdrenochromeEpoxide hydrolase: ; ; rendered via PyMOLMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Cooperstown cocktail: The Cooperstown cocktailStreetman D, Bleakley J et al. Combined phenotypic assessment of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase with the "Cooperstown cocktail".Atrazine chlorohydrolase: Atrazine Chlorohydrolase (AtzA) is an enzyme (E.C.Coles PhillipsEndosulfanAlkylphenolSlc22a21: Solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 21 is a protein that in the house mouse is encoded by the Slc22a21 gene. The gene is also known as Octn3 and Slc22a9.Mediated transportEnt-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase: Ent-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase (, ent-cassadiene C11alpha-hydroxylase, CYP76M7) is an enzyme with system name ent-cassa-12,15-diene,NADPH:oxygen 11-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionButylated hydroxyanisoleBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.CyclohexenePesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Benzo(e)pyreneEthylhexyl triazoneInsecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.BiodegradationAndrosteroneRumack-Matthew nomogram: The Rumack-Matthew nomogram, also known as Rumack-Matthews nomogram or the Acetaminophen nomogram is an acetaminophen toxicity nomogram plotting serum concentration of acetaminophen against the time since ingestion in an attempt to prognosticate possible liver toxicity as well as allowing a clinician to decide whether to proceed with N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment or not. It is a logarithmic graph starting not directly from ingestion, but from 4 hours post ingestion after absorption is considered likely to be complete.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Toxicity