Powder diffraction: Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.B.Hexagonal crystal system: In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems, the hexagonal lattice system is one of the 7 lattice systems, and the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families. They are closely related and often confused with each other, but they are not the same.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.Quantum noise: In physics, quantum noise refers to the uncertainty of a physical quantity that is due to its quantum origin. In certain situations, quantum noise appears as shot noise; for example, most optical communications use amplitude modulation, and thus, the quantum noise appears as shot noise only.Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource: The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (formerly Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory), a division of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is operated by Stanford University for the Department of Energy. SSRL is a National User Facility which provides synchrotron radiation, a name given to electromagnetic radiation in the x-ray, ultraviolet, visible and infrared realms produced by electrons circulating in a storage ring (Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring - SPEAR) at nearly the speed of light.Diffractometer: A diffractometer (pronunciation: di-"frak-'tä-m&-t&r) is a measuring instrument for analyzing the structure of a material from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (such as X-rays or neutrons) interacts with it.Differential scanning calorimetry: Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment.Reaction coordinateDatabase of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Electron crystallography: Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM).Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform: Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)C.-P.Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:X-ray scattering techniquesThermogravimetry: Thermogravimetry (also known by the acronym "TG"; alternative spellings include thermo-gravimetry and thermogravimmetry) is a branch of physical chemistry, materials research, and thermal analysis. It is based on continuous recording of mass changes of a sample of material, as a function of a combination of temperature with time, and additionally of pressure and gas composition.Quasielastic neutron scattering: Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) designates a limiting case of inelastic neutron scattering, characterized by energy transfers being small compared to the incident energy of the scattered particles.Field emission probesValence electron: In chemistry, a valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair. The presence of valence electrons can determine the element's chemical properties and whether it may bond with other elements: For a main group element, a valence electron can only be in the outermost electron shell.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:Model lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.Eco-friendly dentistry: Eco-friendly dentistry"What is Eco-friendly Dentistry is defined by various dentists and dental organizations and primarily consists of general dentistry, oral surgery and other specialty dental services featuring green practices to reduce impact on the eco-system, the environment and patient treatment practices.Coulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Fourier operator: The Fourier operator is the kernel of the Fredholm integral of the first kind that defines the continuous Fourier transform.Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopySpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Powder coating: [Coating Aluminium Extrusions.jpg|thumb|right|Aluminium extrusions being powder coated]Quartz tube furnaceColes PhillipsSimulated body fluid: A simulated body fluid (SBF) is a solution with an ion concentration close to that of human blood plasma, kept under mild conditions of pH and identical physiological temperature. SBF was first introduced by Kokubo et al.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Electrical resistivity measurement of concrete: Concrete electrical resistivity can be obtained by applying a current into the concrete and measuring the response voltage. There are different methods for measuring concrete resistivity.ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of medicinal chemistry. Founded in 2009, this online journal is published monthly by the American Chemical Society.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.IlmeniteIce Ih: [showing details of an ice cube under magnification. Ice Ih is the form of ice commonly seen on Earth.Surface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Solubility: Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution.Egg lecithinStructure validationStandard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.DiisopropylphosphateMyocyteBacteriorhodopsin: Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.See the NCBI webpage on HalobacteriaIt acts as a proton pump; that is, it captures light energy and uses it to move protons across the membrane out of the cell.Transmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.Collagen gel contraction assay: The collagen gel contraction assay is a type of wound contraction. It is performed using the dermal equivalent model, which consists of dermal fibroblasts seeded into a collagen gel.DopastinNanoparticle: Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties.Octacalcium phosphateLaser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.NanotoughPolyvinylpyrrolidoneMyosin: Myosins () comprise a family of ATP-dependent motor proteins and are best known for their role in muscle contraction and their involvement in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes. They are responsible for actin-based motility.Membrane lipidsChronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".Food physical chemistry: Food physical chemistry is considered to be a branch of Food chemistryJohn M. de Man.ChitosanAvo PhotonicsProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Refractometry: Refractometry is the method of measuring substances' refractive index (one of their fundamental physical properties) in order to, for example, assess their composition or purity. A refractometer is the instrument used to measure refractive index ("RI").Charged Aerosol Release Experiment: The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in the upper atmosphere to form a dusty plasma in space. NASA plans to trigger cloud formation around the rocket's exhaust particles.Germanium tetrafluorideRaman microscope: The Raman microscope is a laser-based microscopic device used to perform Raman spectroscopy.Microscopical techniques in the use of the molecular optics laser examiner Raman microprobe, by M.BrittlenessBill Parry (mathematician)Halobacterium: In taxonomy, Halobacterium is a genus of the Halobacteriaceae.See the NCBI webpage on Halobacterium.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.TSOM: Through-Focus Scanning Optical Microscopy (TSOM) is an imaging method that produces nanometer-scale three-dimensional measurement sensitivity using a conventional bright-field optical microscope. TSOM has been introduced and maintained by Ravikiran Attotahttp://www.International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council: International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council is a global organization founded in 1991 representing producers, suppliers, and end users of excipients. The body has three divisions in Europe, Japan, and the United States, each of which focuses on local regulations concerning the excipients market, as well as on new research and business practices.