Autoimmune inner ear disease: Autoimmune inner ear disease is a suspected autoimmune disease characterized by rapidly progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss.Inner Ear, Autoimmune (eMedicine, 2006) It occurs when the body's immune system attacks cells in the inner ear that are mistaken for a virus or bacteria.Vestibular system: The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals, situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1).Placenta: The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing babies and removes waste products from the baby's blood.Electrocochleography: Electrocochleography (abbreviated ECochG or ECOG) is a technique of recording electrical potentials generated in the inner ear and auditory nerve in response to sound stimulation, using an electrode placed in the ear canal or tympanic membrane. The test is performed by an otologist or audiologist with specialized training, and is used for detection of elevated inner ear pressure (endolymphatic hydrops) or for the testing and monitoring of inner ear and auditory nerve function during surgery.Endolymph: Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa.Dog healthMedial vestibular nucleus: The medial vestibular nucleus is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata.Trifluoromethanesulfonate: Trifluoromethanesulfonate, also known by the trivial name triflate, is a functional group with the formula CF3SO3−. The triflate group is often represented by -OTf, as opposed to -Tf (triflyl).SaxitoxinKCNB2: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily B member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNB2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit.Endolymphatic sac tumor: An endolymphatic sac tumor is a very uncommon papillary epithelial neoplasm arising within the endolymphatic sac or endolymphatic duct. This tumor shows a very high association with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL).Perilymph: Perilymph (also known as Cotunnius' liquid, and liquor cotunnii) is an extracellular fluid located within the cochlea (part of the inner ear) in two of its three compartments: the scala tympani and scala vestibuli. The ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to that of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.Trophoblast: Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg.Lagarosiphon major: Lagarosiphon major is a monocotic aquatic plant native to Southern Africa. Common names include African elodea, curly waterweed, oxygen weed and South African oxygen weed.StapesVision in fishes: Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.LabyrinthitisVertigo (Marvel Comics): Vertigo is a native of the Savage Land who obtained superhuman powers at a young age by genetic engineering. Her powers enable her to render a person severely dizzy and even unconscious.ConotoxinSodium channel: Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane. They are classified according to the trigger that opens the channel for such ions, i.Ethyl methanesulfonateDoxanthrine: Doxanthrine is a synthetic compound which is a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine D1 receptor. Doxanthrine has been shown to be orally active in producing contralateral rotation in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.Reaction coordinateFF Scala: FF Scala is an old style, humanist, serif typeface designed by Dutch typeface designer Martin Majoor in 1990 for the Muziekcentrum Vredenburg in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The FF Scala font family was named for the Teatro alla Scala (1776–78) in Milan, Italy.Voltage-gated potassium channel database: VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium Channel DataBase) is a database of functional data about the voltage-gated potassium channels.Posturography: Posturography is a general term that covers all the techniques used to quantify postural control in upright stance in either static or dynamic conditions. Among them, Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), also called test of balance (TOB), is a non-invasive specialized clinical assessment technique used to quantify the central nervous system adaptive mechanisms (sensory, motor and central) involved in the control of posture and balance, both in normal (such as in physical education and sports training) and abnormal conditions (particularly in the diagnosis of balance disorders and in physical therapy and postural re-education).Potassium channel opener: A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.Scyllatoxin: Scyllatoxin (also leiurotoxin I) is a toxin, from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, which blocks small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.Tetraethylammonium chlorideJosse de Corte: [Court Altare S. Maria della Salute.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Margatoxin: Margatoxin (MgTX) is a peptide that selectively inhibits Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.Otolith: An otolith (οτο-, oto-, ear + λιθος, lithos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium, is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. They have been identified in both extinct and extant vertebrates.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Bile acid:sodium symporter: This family of proteins are found both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are related to the human bile acid:sodium symporters, which are transmembrane proteins functioning in the liver in the uptake of bile acids from portal blood plasma, a process mediated by the co-transport of Na+.Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.XEN-D0101: XEN-D0101 is a drug that was developed to treat atrial fibrillation. Xention, a biopharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, United Kingdom, created XEN-D0101 along with other ion channel-modulating drugs.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Chinchilla: RecentEnlarged vestibular aqueduct: [of right osseous labyrinth]Stereocilia (inner ear): In the inner ear, stereocilia are the mechanosensing organelles of hair cells, which respond to fluid motion in numerous types of animals for various functions, including hearing and balance. They are about 10–50 micrometers in length and share some similar features of microvilli.SacculeAlexander's law: Jacobson GP et al. Alexander's law revisited.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms: Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms is a group of tumors.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:Somatotropin family: The Somatotropin family is a protein family whose titular representative is somatotropin, also known as growth hormone, a hormone that plays an important role in growth control. Other members include choriomammotropin (lactogen), its placental analogue; prolactin, which promotes lactation in the mammary gland, and placental prolactin-related proteins; proliferin and proliferin related protein; and somatolactin from various fishes.Fall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.Utricle (ear)SoundBite Hearing System: SoundBite Hearing System is a non-surgical bone conduction prosthetic device that transmits sound via the teeth. It is an alternative to surgical bone conduction prosthetic devices, which require surgical implantation into the skull to conduct sound.Coles PhillipsNystagmusYolk sac: The yolk sac is a membranous [attached to an embryo], formed by cells of the [[hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk. This is alternatively called the umbilical vesicle by the Terminologia Embryologica (TE), though yolk sac is far more widely used.Vestibulocochlear dysfunction progressive familial: Vestibulocochlear dysfunction progressive familial, known also as familial progressive vestibulocochlear dysfunction is an autosomal dominant disease that results in sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular areflexia. Patients report feelings of vague dissiness, blurred vision, dysequilibrium in the dark, and progressive hearing impairment.SildenafilEquivalent rectangular bandwidth: The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.AMBER: AMBER (an acronym for Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement) is a family of force fields for molecular dynamics of biomolecules originally developed by Peter Kollman's group at the University of California, San Francisco. AMBER is also the name for the molecular dynamics software package that simulates these force fields.Potassium channel blocker: Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels.Electroneuronography: Electroneuronography or electroneurography (ENoG) is a neurological non-invasive test that was first described by Esslen and Fisch in 1979 and is used to examine the integrity and conductivity of a peripheral nerve. It consists of a brief electrical stimulation of the nerve in one point underneath the skin, and at the same time recording the electrical activity (compound action potentials) at another point of the nerve's trajectory in the body.