BelotecanType I topoisomerase: In molecular biology Type I topoisomerases are enzymes that cut one of the two strands of double-stranded DNA, relax the strand, and reanneal the strand. They are further subdivided into two structurally and mechanistically distinct topoisomerases: type IA and type IB.IrinotecanType II topoisomeraseTopoisomerase inhibitor: Topoisomerase inhibitors are agents designed to interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes |title=Definition of topoisomerase inhibitor - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms |format= |work= |accessdate=}} (topoisomerase I and II), which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure |title=Dorlands Medical Dictionary:topoisomerase inhibitor |work= |accessdate=}} by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle.IndeneTeniposideAntileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:G2-M DNA damage checkpoint: The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. This checkpoint ensures that cells don't initiate mitosis before they have a chance to repair damaged DNA after replication.Topoisomerase IV: Topoisomerase IV is one of two type-II topoisomerases in bacteria, the other being DNA gyrase. Like gyrase, topoisomerase IV is able to pass one double-strand of DNA through another double-strand of DNA, thereby changing the linking number of DNA by two in each enzymatic step.AmsacrineSSR-180,575DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.SesamolCarbazoleTosufloxacinConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.RotenoneOncotype DX Colon Cancer AssayStart point (yeast): The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast. The Start checkpoint ensures irreversible cell-cycle entry even if conditions later become unfavorable.Nude mouseDNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.DNA fragmentation: DNA fragmentation is the separation or breaking of DNA strands into pieces. It can be done intentionally by laboratory personnel or by cells, or can occur spontaneously.Ethyl groupNovobiocinBase excision repair: frame|right|Basic steps of base excision repair|Basic steps of base excision repairSmall-cell carcinomaColes PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Reaction coordinateLow-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Cyclic neutropeniaMinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Histone octamer: A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle. It consists of two copies of each of the four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4).Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5DNA-binding proteinNucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.P53: Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor.FL3 (flavagline)Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.PodophyllotoxinList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".GHKL domainAcid catalysis: In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base. The acid is the proton donor and the base is the proton acceptor.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.